Salt Content of School Meals and Comparison of Perception Related to Sodium Intake in Elementary, Middle, and High Schools.

Salt content of school meals and comparison of perception related to sodium intake in elementary, middle, and high schools.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Nutr Res Pract. 2013 Feb; 7(1): 59-65
Ahn S, Park S, Kim JN, Han SN, Jeong SB, Kim HK

Excessive sodium intake leading to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer is mainly caused by excess use of salt in cooking. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in school meals and to compare differences in perceptions related to sodium intake between students and staffs working for school meal service. We collected 382 dishes for food from 24 schools (9 elementary, 7 middle, 8 high schools) in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food. The average salt content from elementary, middle, and high school meals were 2.44 g, 3.96 g, and 5.87 g, respectively. The amount of salt provided from the school lunch alone was over 80% of the recommended daily salt intake by WHO. Noodles, stews, sauces, and soups were major sources of salt intake at dish group level, while the most salty dishes were sauces, kimchies, and stir-fried foods. Dietary knowledge and attitude related to sodium intake and consumption frequency of the salty dishes were surveyed with questionnaire in 798 students and 256 staffs working for school meal service. Compared with the staffs, the students perceived school meals salty and the proportions of students who thought school meals were salty increased with going up from elementary to high schools (P < 0.001). Among the students, middle and high school students showed significant propensity for the preference to one-dish meal, processed foods, eating much broth and dipping sauce or seasoning compared with the elementary students, although they had higher nutrition knowledge scores. These results proposed that monitoring salt content of school meals and consideration on the contents and education methods in school are needed to lower sodium intake.
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Sucrose feeding in mouse pregnancy leads to hypertension, and sex-linked obesity and insulin resistance in female offspring.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Front Physiol. 2013; 4: 14
Samuelsson AM, Matthews PA, Jansen E, Taylor PD, Poston L

Eating an unbalanced diet during pregnancy may induce long-term health consequences in offspring, in particular obesity, insulin resistance, and hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that a maternal diet rich in simple sugars predispose mouse offspring to obesity, glucose intolerance, and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed either a standard chow or a sucrose-rich diet (26% of total energy) 6 weeks prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring of control dams (OC) and high sucrose fed dams (OSF) were weaned onto standard control chow, and metabolic and cardiovascular parameters determined at 3 months of age. Both male and female OSF were hyperphagic by 4 weeks of age and females were heavier than OC at 6 weeks. At 3 months, female OSF showed a significant increase in inguinal fat pad mass, whereas skeletal muscle mass (tibialis anterior) and locomotor activity were decreased relative to OC. A 10-fold increase in fasting serum insulin in female OSF vs. OC at 3 months (Insulin [pmol/L] mean ± SEM, OSF, 200.3 ± 16.1, vs. OC, 20.3 ± 1.8, n = 6 P < 0.001), was associated with impaired glucose tolerance (AUC [mmol/L min] mean ± SEM, OSF 1437.4 ± 124.2 vs. OC, 1076.8 ± 83.9, n = 6, P < 0.05). Both male and female OSF were hypertensive as assessed by radiotelemetry (night-time systolic arterial pressure (SAP) [mmHg] mean ± SEM, male OSF, 128 ± 1 vs. OC, 109 ± 1, n = 6, P < 0.01; female OSF, 130 ± 1 vs. OC, 118 ± 1, n = 6, P < 0.05). Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) demonstrated an increased low:high frequency ratio in male and female OSF (P < 0.05), indicative of heightened sympathetic efferent tone. Renal tissue noradrenaline (NA) content was markedly raised in the OSF vs. OC (NA [pg/ml/mg tissue] mean ± SEM, male OSF, 2.28 ± 0.19 vs. OC 0.84 ± 0.09, n = 6, P < 0.01). Exposure to a maternal diet rich in sucrose led to obesity and glucose intolerance in female mice offspring, and hypertension in both sexes. HubMed – eating


Treatment challenges for men with eating disorders.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

CMAJ. 2013 Feb 19; 185(3): E137-8
Collier R

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Exposure to organochlorines and mercury through fish and marine mammal consumption: Associations with growth and duration of gestation among Inuit newborns.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Environ Int. 2013 Feb 16; 54C: 85-91
Dallaire R, Dewailly E, Ayotte P, Forget-Dubois N, Jacobson SW, Jacobson JL, Muckle G

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported negative associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mercury (Hg) with duration of gestation and fetal growth in fish eating populations. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish, seafood and marine mammal intake has been reported to be positively related with pregnancy duration and fetal growth. So far, it remains unclear, however, if the associations of environmental contaminants (ECs) with growth are direct or mediated through their relation with the duration of gestation and the degree to which DHA intake during pregnancy attenuates the negative association of ECs with fetal growth. OBJECTIVES: To investigate direct and indirect associations of in utero exposure to ECs with fetal growth and pregnancy duration while taking into account the possible positive effects of DHA. METHODS: Pregnant Inuit women (N=248) from Arctic Quebec were recruited and cord blood samples were analyzed for PCBs, HCB, Hg and DHA. Anthropometric measurements were assessed at birth. Path models were used to evaluate direct and indirect associations. RESULTS: Cord concentrations of PCB 153, HCB and Hg were significantly associated with shorter duration of pregnancy (? varying from -0.17 to -0.20, p<0.05). Path models indicated that the associations of PCBs, HCB and Hg with reduced fetal growth (? varying from -0.09 to -0.13, p<0.05) were mediated through their relations with shorter gestation duration. Cord DHA was indirectly related to greater growth parameters (? varying from 0.17 to 0.20, p<0.05) through its positive association with gestation duration. CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to ECs was associated with reduced gestation duration, which is a recognized determinant of fetal growth. DHA intake during pregnancy appeared to have independent positive association with fetal growth by prolonging gestation. Whether these associations are causal remains to be elucidated. HubMed – eating


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