Safety and Efficacy of Pralatrexate in the Treatment of Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma.

Safety and efficacy of pralatrexate in the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

Ther Adv Hematol. 2012 Aug; 3(4): 227-35
Marchi E, O’Connor OA

T-cell lymphomas (TCL) are a diverse and heterogeneous group of malignancies that represent less than 15% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Initial refinements of the clinical classification of these complex diseases have been made, but a better understanding of their molecular pathogenesis is still needed. Even if the paucity of insights into the underlying pathogenesis of TCLs has hindered our ability to develop rational targeted therapies, significant advances have been made. Pralatrexate (10-propargyl 10-deazaaminopterin) is a unique antifolate that has been rationally designed to have high affinity for the reduced folate receptor (RFC) and the folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) and was the first drug ever approved for the treatment of relapsed and refractory peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL). This review describes the preclinical development of pralatrexate that led to early-phase clinical trials in lung cancer and lymphoma and its subsequent approval in PTCL. The review also describes how pralatrexate has been combined with other agents in both the preclinical and clinical settings. FDA approval for the use of pralatrexate in PTCL has been granted based on the results of the pivotal Phase II trial of this agent in relapsed and refractory PTCL patients. clinical development, pralatrexate, preclinical data, T-cell lymphoma. HubMed – drug


Safety and efficacy of brentuximab vedotin in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma or systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

Ther Adv Hematol. 2012 Aug; 3(4): 209-25
Vaklavas C, Forero-Torres A

Antibody-based immunotherapy has become an integral part of cancer therapeutics. However, monoclonal antibodies have their limitations as identifying an antigen selectively expressed on malignant cells and developing a high-affinity antibody may not by itself alter tumor growth. This is illustrated in the case of CD30; CD30 epitomizes many properties of an ideal pharmacologic target such as high expression on malignant cells and limited expression on normal tissues. However, until the advent of brentuximab vedotin, CD30 remained an elusive target as antibody-based anti-CD30 immunotherapy had been largely clinically unsuccessful. Brentuximab vedotin (cAC10-vcMMAE, SGN-35) is an antibody-drug conjugate consisting of a chimeric anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody whereupon the potent microtubule inhibitor monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) is attached via a valine-citrulline linker. Once bound to CD30, brentuximab vedotin is internalized and MMAE is released with the action of lysosomal enzymes on the linker. In phase I studies in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma, brentuximab vedotin induced unprecedented responses with manageable toxicity. In phase II studies, brentuximab vedotin induced overall response rates of 75% and 86% in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma, respectively. The results of these trials led to the accelerated approval of the drug by the US Food and Drug Administration in a patient population with few other alternative options. Brentuximab vedotin has overall manageable toxicity profile; however, cumulative peripheral neuropathy constitutes an important clinical consideration as it may limit prolonged administration of the drug. The mechanism by which brentuximab vedotin exerts its antitumor activity is not entirely clear. Diffusion of MMAE in the tumor microenvironment and cytotoxicity on bystander cells may in part explain its activity, especially in Hodgkin lymphoma. Herein, we review the biology of CD30 and brentuximab vedotin, and the clinical data that has accumulated thus far with SGN-35. HubMed – drug


Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Arrays for Enhanced Transdermal Drug Delivery.

Adv Funct Mater. 2012 Dec 5; 22(23): 4879-4890
Donnelly RF, Singh TR, Garland MJ, Migalska K, Majithiya R, McCrudden CM, Kole PL, Mahmood TM, McCarthy HO, Woolfson AD

Unique microneedle arrays prepared from crosslinked polymers, which contain no drug themselves, are described. They rapidly take up skin interstitial fluid upon skin insertion to form continuous, unblockable, hydrogel conduits from attached patch-type drug reservoirs to the dermal microcirculation. Importantly, such microneedles, which can be fabricated in a wide range of patch sizes and microneedle geometries, can be easily sterilized, resist hole closure while in place, and are removed completely intact from the skin. Delivery of macromolecules is no longer limited to what can be loaded into the microneedles themselves and transdermal drug delivery is now controlled by the crosslink density of the hydrogel system rather than the stratum corneum, while electrically modulated delivery is also a unique feature. This technology has the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional microneedle designs and greatly increase the range of the type of drug that is deliverable transdermally, with ensuing benefits for industry, healthcare providers and, ultimately, patients. HubMed – drug