Rumination, Substance Use, and Self-Harm in a Representative Australian Adult Sample.

Rumination, Substance Use, and Self-Harm in a Representative Australian Adult Sample.

J Clin Psychol. 2013 Jul 9;
Tait RJ, Brinker J, Moller CI, French DJ

There are few data on self-harm in the general population, especially examining the roles of rumination and substance use.To evaluate the inter-relationships of rumination, self-harm, and potential mediating variables.A cohort with follow-up every 4 years involving a random sample of adults aged 20-24 and 40-44 years (at baseline) living in Australia. The survey included items on three common forms of self-harm. Other measures included rumination, Goldberg Anxiety and Depression scales, substance use, coping style (Brief COPE), and demographic risk factors.The sample comprised 2,184 women and 1,942 men with 287 self-harm cases (7.0%). Depression and coping style were significant mediators of rumination on self-harm for men, with depression being the only robust mediator for women. For males, age and education were also significantly associated, while for women, age, smoking, trauma, and sexual abuse were significant.Men and women differ on mediators of self-harm. HubMed – depression


Total intravenous anesthesia combined with epidural eptazocine.

J Anesth. 1995 Dec; 9(4): 311-7
Aida S, Tomiyama T, Shimoji K

To reduce the doses of intravenous anesthetics (ketamine, diazepam, droperidol, and vecuronium) used in total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), epidural administration of a ?-stimulating opioid, eptazocine, was combined with TIVA in 115 patients. Surgical procedures were uneventful under TIVA plus epidural eptazocine; significant depression of EEG and somatosensory-evoked potentials during anesthesia were observed without delay in recovery. The circulatory response and blood glucose level during and after anesthesia and surgery were stable, and there was no postanesthetic respiratory depression. On the other hand, in 46 patients given TIVA only, hypertension, tachycardia, and elevated blood glucose during and after anesthesia were observed: in 25 (54.3%) patients, a vasodepressor was required, and in 18 (39.1%) patients, nitrous oxide was needed. Therefore, epidural eptazocine may make it possible to use lower doses of anesthesia in TIVA, thus reducing the adverse effects associated with TIVA such as hypertension during surgery, intraoperative awareness, postanesthetic respiratory depression, delayed recovery from anesthesia, and neurological signs after anesthesia. This may be due to the ?-stimulating action of epidural eptazocine on the spinal cord and its ?-blocking action, as well as its lack of ?-action on the brain. HubMed – depression


Optimal administration time of intramuscular midazolam premedication.

J Anesth. 1995 Mar; 9(1): 11-4
Nishiyama T, Nagase M, Tamai H, Watanabe S, Iwasaki T, Hirasaki A

The optimal administration time for intramuscular injection of midazolam as premedication was studied. Sixty patients ranging in age from 40 to 65 were included. A combination of atropine 0.3-0.5 mg and midazolam 0.08 mg·kg(-1) was given to four groups of 15 subjects each in intramuscular injections 45, 30, 15 min, and immediately before entering the operating room. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, depression of the root of the tongue, eyelash reflex, degree of sedation, and amnestic effect at the time of arriving the operating room were compared among the groups. There was no difference among the groups in blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate. The depression of the root of the tongue, disappearance of verbal response, and eyelash reflex were found in the 30- and 45-min groups. The degree of sedation and amnestic effect were good except for the group who received midazolam immediately before entering the operating room. From the above results, intramuscular injection of midazolam 0.08 mg·kg(-1) with atropine 0.3-0.5 mg is considered best when administered 15 min before entering the operating room. HubMed – depression


Broadening the cancer and cognition landscape: the role of self-regulatory challenges.

Psychooncology. 2013 Jul 10;
Arndt J, Das E, Schagen SB, Reid-Arndt SA, Cameron LD, Ahles TA

The potentially detrimental effects of cancer and related treatments on cognitive functioning have emerged as one of the key foci of cancer survivorship research, but little is known about how psychological variables other than depression influence these relationships. To illustrate the potential of social psychological perspectives, we examine how a self-regulatory analysis and specific self-regulatory challenges of contending with cancer-related expectancies and stereotypes provide conceptual frameworks for understanding some of the potential causes and consequences of cancer-related cognitive deficits.Literatures on cancer-related cognitive deficits, self-regulatory ego depletion, expectancy stereotypes, and their points of convergence are briefly reviewed.A review and conceptual integration of relevant literatures suggest that coping with cancer can impair self-regulatory capacity. There is an overlap between cognitive deficits associated with self-regulatory challenge and with cancer and its treatment, and restoring self-regulatory resources can attenuate cancer-related cognitive deficits. Examination of specific regulatory challenges of contending with expectancies and stereotypes related to treatment suggests insights that can inform when and among whom cognitive deficits may most likely emerge.Integrating social psychological ideas with a substantial knowledge base can illustrate novel research trajectories that can deepen our understanding of cancer-related cognitive deficits and their impact on psychosocial well-being. Broadening the cancer and cognition landscape: the role of self-regulatory challenges Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. HubMed – depression