Role of Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Practice.

Role of Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Practice.

PharmaNutrition. 2013 Apr; 1(2): 41-49
McNamara RK, Strawn JR

Nutrition plays a minor role in psychiatric practice which is currently dominated by a pharmacological treatment algorithm. An accumulating body of evidence has implicated deficits in the dietary essential long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology of several major psychiatric disorders. LCn-3 fatty acids have an established long-term safety record in the general population, and existing evidence suggests that increasing LCn-3 fatty acid status may reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. LCn-3 fatty acid supplementation has been shown to augment the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant, mood-stabilizer, and second generation antipsychotic medications, and may additionally mitigate adverse cardiometabolic side-effects. Preliminary evidence also suggests that LCn-3 fatty acid supplementation may be efficacious as monotherapy for primary and early secondary prevention and for perinatal symptoms. The overall cost-benefit ratio endorses the incorporation of LCn-3 fatty acids into psychiatric treatment algorithms. The recent availability of laboratory facilities that specialize in determining blood LCn-3 fatty acid status and emerging evidence-based consensus guidelines regarding safe and efficacious LCn-3 fatty acid dose ranges provide the infrastructure necessary for implementation. This article outlines the rationale for incorporating LCn-3 fatty acid treatment into psychiatric practice. HubMed – depression


Pattern of Change of Depressive Disorder over a One-Year Period among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Québec.

Depress Res Treat. 2013; 2013: 451708
Mechakra-Tahiri DS, Dubé M, Zunzunegui MV, Préville M, Berbiche D, Brassard J

The objective of this study was to describe changes in depression and its correlates, in community-dwelling elderly, over a 12-month period. Data come from a longitudinal ESA Study (Enquête sur la Santé des Aînés) of elderly persons (n = 2752). Depression was measured using the DSM-IV criteria. Polytomous logistic regression was used to assess relations, over time, between participant’s characteristics and depression. Among the 164 (5.9%) subjects, who were depressed at baseline, 19.5% were continuously ill cases and 80.4% had recovered, 12 months later. In polytomous regression, factors increasing the probability of the three depression states (persistence, recovery, and incidence) were daily hassles, stress intensity, and fair/poor self-rated mental health. Depression in old age is dynamic. Available prognostic factors can be taken into account to help direct treatment to elderly at highest risk of a poor prognosis. HubMed – depression


The heterogeneity of cognitive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease: a meta-analysis.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 20;
Tremblay C, Achim AM, Macoir J, Monetta L

Several studies have reported heterogeneity in cognitive symptoms associated with specific characteristics of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Indeed, researchers have characterised subtypes of patients suffering from PD according to various criteria. Those most frequently used are the type of predominant motor symptoms (tremors or non-tremor symptoms), age at onset and presence of depression. Some characteristics, like the predominant motor subtypes, as well as the presence of depression, are more widely used to categorise cognitive differences between patients. The goal of this study was to analyse the impact of the type of predominant motor symptoms and depression on cognition in PD. A meta-analysis of 27 studies (from 1989 to 2012) was carried out to calculate the average effect size of these factors on the most often used cognitive test during those past years to evaluate cognitive skills, the Mini-Mental State Examination. The studies analysed showed significant mean weighted effect sizes on cognition for the type of motor symptoms (d=0.42; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.54) and for depression (d=0.52; 95% CI 0.38 to 0.66). These results suggested that PD participants with non-tremor predominant motor symptoms or with depression had more or more severe cognitive impairments. Identification of different subtypes in PD is important for a better understanding of the cognitive symptoms associated with this disease. Better knowing the impact of different features of PD subgroups could help to design more appropriate treatments for patients with PD. HubMed – depression


Peg-IFN?/ribavirin/protease inhibitor combination in hepatitis C virus associated mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis: results at week 24.

Ann Rheum Dis. 2013 Apr 20;
Saadoun D, Resche Rigon M, Thibault V, Longuet M, Pol S, Blanc F, Pialoux G, Karras A, Bazin-Karra D, Cazorla C, Vittecoq D, Musset L, Decaux O, Ziza JM, Lambotte O, Cacoub P

BACKGROUND: The standard-of-care treatment of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) vasculitis includes pegylated interferon ? (PegIFN)-? plus ribavirin and/or rituximab. About 30-40% of patients are non-responders or relapsers to such combination. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the safety and efficacy of Peg-IFN?/ribavirin/protease inhibitor combination in HCV-MC vasculitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Open-label, prospective, cohort study including 23 patients with HCV-MC vasculitis. Peg-IFN?/ribavirin was associated to telaprevir (375 mg three times daily, for 12 weeks, (n=15)) or boceprevir (800 mg three times daily, for 44 weeks, (n=8)) for 48 weeks. RESULTS: The median age was 59 (52.5-66) years, with 48.8% women. Thirteen patients (56.5%) were complete clinical responders, and 10 (43.5%) were partial responders at week 24. The virological response (ie, HCV RNA negativation) was of 69.6% at week 24 (p=0.005). The cryoglobulin level decreased from 0.44 to 0.06 g/l (p=0.0006) and the C4 level increased from 0.09 to 0.15 g/l (p=0.045). Grades 3 and 4 adverse events (mainly anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia) were observed in 10 cases (43.5%). Twenty patients (87%) received erythropoietin, 9 (39.1%) had red cell transfusion, and 2 (8.7%) had granulocyte stimulating agents. Antiviral therapy discontinuation was required in 8 (34.7%) patients for virological non-response (n=5), virological relapse (n=2) and depression (n=1). CONCLUSIONS: Peg-IFN?/ribavirin/protease inhibitor combination seems highly effective in HCV-MC. Such therapeutic regimen should be administered cautiously considering the high rate of side effects. HubMed – depression