Retarded Head Growth and Neurocognitive Development in Infants of Mothers With a History of Eating Disorders: Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Retarded head growth and neurocognitive development in infants of mothers with a history of eating disorders: longitudinal cohort study.

BJOG. 2013 Jul 3;
Koubaa S, Hällström T, Hagenäs L, Hirschberg A

To characterise early growth and neurocognitive development in children of mothers with a history of eating disorders (ED).A longitudinal cohort study.Child-care centres in Stockholm, Sweden.Children born to mothers with previous ED (n = 47) (24 anorexia nervosa, 20 bulimia nervosa, 3 unspecified ED), and controls (n = 65).Mean values and standard deviation scores of weight and height from birth to 5 years of age and head circumference up to 18 months of age were compared between groups. Neurocognitive development was studied at the age of 5 years by the validated parent questionnaire Five to Fifteen.Head growth and neurocognitive development.We previously reported that mothers with a history of ED conceived infants with lower birthweight and head circumference than controls. At 3 months of age, body mass index (BMI) was no longer reduced but mean head circumferences of the children born to mothers with ED were smaller throughout the observation period. Similarly, the longitudinal results of the standard deviation scores of head circumference showed a significant overall group effect with lower levels in both subgroups of ED (anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa). The children of the ED mothers also had significantly higher Five to Fifteen scores than controls, reflecting difficulties in language skills. Head circumference at birth correlated with language skills in the children of mothers with ED.Children of mothers with previous ED demonstrated an early catch-up in BMI, but the average head circumference continued to be delayed until at least 18 months of age. The reduced head growth was related to delayed neurocognitive development. HubMed – eating


National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: nutrition standards for all foods sold in school as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Interim final rule.

Fed Regist. 2013 Jun 28; 78(125): 39067-120

This interim final rule amends the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program regulations to establish nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools, other than food sold under the lunch and breakfast programs. Amendments made by Section 208 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) require the Secretary to establish nutrition standards for such foods, consistent with the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and directs the Secretary to consider authoritative scientific recommendations for nutrition standards; existing school nutrition standards, including voluntary standards for beverages and snack foods; current State and local standards; the practical application of the nutrition standards; and special exemptions for infrequent school-sponsored fundraisers (other than fundraising through vending machines, school stores, snack bars, à la carte sales and any other exclusions determined by the Secretary). In addition, this interim final rule requires schools participating in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program to make potable water available to children at no charge in the place where lunches are served during the meal service, consistent with amendments made by section 203 of the HHFKA, and in the cafeteria during breakfast meal service. This interim final rule is expected to improve the health and well-being of the Nation’s children, increase consumption of healthful foods during the school day, and create an environment that reinforces the development of healthy eating habits. HubMed – eating