Relative Importance of Individual and Social Factors in Improving Adolescent Health.

Relative importance of individual and social factors in improving adolescent health.

Perspect Public Health. 2013 Mar; 133(2): 122-31
Hargreaves DS, McVey D, Nairn A, Viner RM

Aims: In 2010, the English Department of Health launched a radical new public health strategy, which sees individual factors, such as self-esteem, as the key to improving all aspects of young people’s health. This article compares the strength of association between key adolescent health outcomes and a range of individual and social factors Methods: All participants aged 12-15 in the nationally representative 2008 Healthy Foundations survey were included. Six individual factors related to self-esteem, confidence and personal responsibility, and seven social factors related to family, peers, school and local area were investigated. Single-factor and multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate the association between these factors and seven health outcomes (self-reported general health, physical activity, healthy eating, weight, smoking, alcohol intake, illicit drug use). Odds ratios were adjusted for gender, age and deprivation. Results: Individual factors such as self-esteem were associated with general health, physical activity and healthy eating. However, the influence of family, peers, school and local community appear to be equally important for these outcomes and more important for smoking, drug use and healthy weight. Conclusion: Self-esteem interventions alone are unlikely to be successful in improving adolescent health, particularly in tackling obesity and reducing substance misuse. HubMed – eating


Online networks of eating-disorder websites: why censoring pro-ana might be a bad idea.

Perspect Public Health. 2013 Mar; 133(2): 94-5

HubMed – eating


Historical Overview of Taenia asiatica in Taiwan.

Korean J Parasitol. 2013 Feb; 51(1): 31-6
Ooi HK, Ho CM, Chung WC

An overview of the epidemiological, biological, and clinical studies of and taeniasis in Taiwan for the past century is presented. The phenomenal observations that led to the discovery of as a new species, which differ from and , are described. Parasitological surveys of the aborigines in Taiwan revealed a high prevalence of taeniasis, which might be due to the culture of eating raw liver of hunted wild boars. Chemotherapeutic deworming trials involving many patients with taeniasis were discussed. Praziquantel was found to be very effective, but sometimes complete worms could not be recovered from the feces after treatment, probably due to the dissolution of the proglottids. Atabrine, despite some side effects, can still be used, in properly controlled dosages, as the drug of choice for human infection if we need to recover the expelled worms for morphological examinations. Research results on the infection of eggs from Taiwan aborigines in experimental animals were also noted. Since the pig serve as the natural intermediate host of and the predilection site is the liver, a differential comparison of other parasitic pathogens that might cause apparently similar lesions is also presented. HubMed – eating


Nutrition Management of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Nutr Clin Pract. 2013 Mar 6;
Greenwood DI

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurological disease with high risk of malnutrition. Symptoms of dysphagia, depression, cognitive impairment, difficulty with self-feeding and meal preparation, hypermetabolism, anxiety, respiratory insufficiency, and fatigue with meals increase the risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition negatively affects prognosis and quality of life, making early and frequent nutrition assessment and intervention essential. Implementation of an adequate calorie diet, dietary texture modification, use of adaptive eating utensils, and placement of a feeding tube aid in preventing malnutrition. When nutrition status is compromised by dysphagia and weight loss (5%-10% of usual body weight) or body mass index <20 kg/m2 without weight loss and when forced vital capacity is >50%, a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement is indicated. When forced vital capacity is <50%, a radiologically inserted gastrostomy is the preferred means of enteral placement due to lessened aspiration and respiratory risk. Parenteral nutrition (PN) is indicated only when enteral nutrition (EN) is contraindicated or impossible. This article reviews the background of ALS, nutrition implications and risk of malnutrition, treatment strategies to prevent malnutrition, the role of EN and PN, and feeding tube placement methods according to disease stage. HubMed – eating