Relative Effectiveness of Adjunctive Risperidone on Manic and Depressive Symptoms in Mixed Mania.

Relative effectiveness of adjunctive risperidone on manic and depressive symptoms in mixed mania.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012 Dec 11;
Singh V, Bowden CL, Mintz J

Mixed states are common and severe manifestations of bipolar disorder, with limited data on the differential efficacy of treatments on depressive and manic symptoms. This study assessed the effectiveness of open-label adjunctive risperidone in achieving sustained effectiveness in patients with mixed mania, with a specific focus on the differential benefits on manic and depressive symptomatology. Forty patients with bipolar disorder I, currently in a mixed manic episode, were treated with adjunctive risperidone. Behavioral measures at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 were assessed using the following scales: the Young Mania Rating Scale, the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Global Assessment Scale. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients who attained a sustained response on either depressive or manic symptomatology, defined as at least 50% reduction from the baseline on the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale or the Young Mania Rating Scale, maintained over at least 8 weeks without subsequent relapse during the 20-week trial. A significantly higher proportion of patients achieved a sustained response for mania than depression, 16/40 versus 6/40, respectively (McNemar’s ? 8.33, P=0.004). Higher elevated mood at baseline and lower apparent sadness (P<0.016) each predicted a sustained response for mania (P<0.0001). Mixed manic patients who were treated with risperidone adjunctive to mood stabilizer/s for 20 weeks were significantly more likely to achieve a sustained response for manic than for depressive symptomatology. HubMed – depression


Individual Differences in Amygdala-Medial Prefrontal Anatomy Link Negative Affect, Impaired Social Functioning, and Polygenic Depression Risk.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Neurosci. 2012 Dec 12; 32(50): 18087-18100
Holmes AJ, Lee PH, Hollinshead MO, Bakst L, Roffman JL, Smoller JW, Buckner RL

Individual differences in affective and social processes may arise from variability in amygdala-medial prefrontal (mPFC) circuitry and related genetic heterogeneity. To explore this possibility in humans, we examined the structural correlates of trait negative affect in a sample of 1050 healthy young adults with no history of psychiatric illness. Analyses revealed that heightened negative affect was associated with increased amygdala volume and reduced thickness in a left mPFC region encompassing the subgenual and rostral anterior cingulate cortex. The most extreme individuals displayed an inverse correlation between amygdala volume and mPFC thickness, suggesting that imbalance between these structures is linked to negative affect in the general population. Subgroups of participants were further evaluated on social (n = 206) and emotional (n = 533) functions. Individuals with decreased mPFC thickness exhibited the poorest social cognition and were least able to correctly identify facial emotion. Given prior links between disrupted amygdala-mPFC circuitry and the presence of major depressive disorder (MDD), we explored whether the individual differences in anatomy observed here in healthy young adults were associated with polygenic risk for MDD (n = 438) using risk scores derived from a large genome-wide association analysis (n = 18,759). Analyses revealed associations between increasing polygenic burden for MDD and reduced cortical thickness in the left mPFC. These collective findings suggest that, within the healthy population, there is significant variability in amygdala-mPFC circuitry that is associated with poor functioning across affective and social domains. Individual differences in this circuitry may arise, in part, from common genetic variability that contributes to risk for MDD.
HubMed – depression


Abnormal synaptic vesicle biogenesis in Drosophila synaptogyrin mutants.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Neurosci. 2012 Dec 12; 32(50): 18054-67
Stevens RJ, Akbergenova Y, Jorquera RA, Littleton JT

Sustained neuronal communication relies on the coordinated activity of multiple proteins that regulate synaptic vesicle biogenesis and cycling within the presynaptic terminal. Synaptogyrin and synaptophysin are conserved MARVEL domain-containing transmembrane proteins that are among the most abundant synaptic vesicle constituents, although their role in the synaptic vesicle cycle has remained elusive. To further investigate the function of these proteins, we generated and characterized a synaptogyrin (gyr)-null mutant in Drosophila, whose genome encodes a single synaptogyrin isoform and lacks a synaptophysin homolog. We demonstrate that Drosophila synaptogyrin plays a modulatory role in synaptic vesicle biogenesis at larval neuromuscular junctions. Drosophila lacking synaptogyrin are viable and fertile and have no overt deficits in motor function. However, ultrastructural analysis of gyr larvae revealed increased synaptic vesicle diameter and enhanced variability in the size of synaptic vesicles. In addition, the resolution of endocytic cisternae into synaptic vesicles in response to strong stimulation is defective in gyr mutants. Electrophysiological analysis demonstrated an increase in quantal size and a concomitant decrease in quantal content, suggesting functional consequences for transmission caused by the loss of synaptogyrin. Furthermore, high-frequency stimulation resulted in increased facilitation and a delay in recovery from synaptic depression, indicating that synaptic vesicle exo-endocytosis is abnormally regulated during intense stimulation conditions. These results suggest that synaptogyrin modulates the synaptic vesicle exo-endocytic cycle and is required for the proper biogenesis of synaptic vesicles at nerve terminals.
HubMed – depression


Treatment Of Depression In Managed Care (Mental Health Practice Under...

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Active Treatment of Depression (Norton Professional Books)-ExLibrary
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Major Depression: Prevention and Treatment by Michael R. Lowry (1984, Hardcover)
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