Relationship of Cravings With Weight Loss and Hunger: Results From a 6 Month Worksite Weight Loss Intervention.

Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger: Results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention.

Appetite. 2013 May 15;
Batra P, Das SK, Salinardi T, Robinson L, Saltzman E, Scott T, Pittas AG, Roberts SB

We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy intake by adherence to portion-controlled menu suggestions, and assessments were obtained in 95 participants at baseline and 6 months including non-fasting body weight, food cravings (Craving Inventory and Food Craving Questionnaire for state and trait) and the eating behavior constructs restraint, disinhibition and hunger (Eating Inventory). There were statistically significant reductions in all craving variables in the intervention group compared to the controls. Within the intervention group, changes in craving-trait were significantly associated with weight loss after controlling for baseline weight, age, gender and worksite. However, in a multivariate model with craving-trait and eating behaviors (restraint, disinhibition and hunger), hunger was the only significant predictor of weight change. In contrast to some previous reports of increased food cravings with weight loss in lifestyle interventions, this study observed a broad reduction in cravings associated with weight loss. In addition, greater reductions in craving-trait were associated with greater weight change, but craving-trait was not a significant independent correlate of weight change when hunger was included in statistical models. Studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of hunger suppressing versus craving-suppressing strategies in lifestyle interventions for obesity. HubMed – eating


Distribution of Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents Using the Proposed DSM-5 Criteria for Feeding and Eating Disorders.

J Adolesc Health. 2013 May 15;
Ornstein RM, Rosen DS, Mammel KA, Callahan ST, Forman S, Jay MS, Fisher M, Rome E, Walsh BT

PURPOSE: To determine the distribution of eating disorders (ED) in children and adolescents comparing the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) to the proposed fifth edition DSM criteria. METHODS: A total of 215 consecutive patients (15.4 ± 3.3 years) presenting for initial ED evaluation to adolescent medicine physicians from six institutions were assigned ED diagnoses using current DSM-IV criteria as well as proposed DSM-5 criteria. RESULTS: Diagnoses of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa increased using the proposed DSM-5 criteria (from 30.0% to 40.0% and from 7.3% to 11.8%, p < .001). Approximately 14% of patients received the presumptive DSM-5 diagnosis of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder. Cases of ED not otherwise specified decreased from 62.3% to 32.6% (p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Proposed DSM-5 criteria substantially decreased the frequency of ED not otherwise specified diagnoses and increased the number of cases of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in a population of young patients presenting for ED treatment. Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder appears to be a significant diagnosis. HubMed – eating


Behavioral and physiological effects of a short-term feed restriction in lactating dairy cattle with different body condition scores at calving.

J Dairy Sci. 2013 May 15;
Schütz KE, Cox NR, Macdonald KA, Roche JR, Verkerk GA, Rogers AR, Tucker CB, Matthews LR, Meier S, Webster JR

Body condition score (BCS) around calving, and the typical BCS loss for up to 100 d after parturition, is associated with both production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle. In addition, there is public concern that thin cows may have impaired welfare, particularly in early lactation where feed demand exceeds pasture growth, and a lag exists between peak milk energy requirements and intake. The aim of this experiment was to determine how BCS at calving influences behavioral and physiological responses to a short-term feed restriction at 47 DIM. Body condition score (on a 10-point scale) at calving was manipulated by modifying the diets in the previous lactation of healthy dairy cattle to generate 3 treatment groups: low BCS (3.4; n = 17), medium BCS (4.6; n = 18), or high BCS (5.4; n = 20). Cows were tested in 4 groups for 8 consecutive days; testing consisted of different levels of feed allocation (d 1 and 2: 100%; d 3 and 4: 75%; d 5: 50%; d 6 to 8: 125%), where 100% was 15 kg of DM/cow per day. All BCS groups had similar and marked behavioral and physiological responses to feed restriction. For example, they increased vocalization, time spent eating silage and grazing, aggressive behavior, and fat metabolism (as measured by concentrations of ?-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids), and reduced milk production. Body condition affected some of these responses. Fewer cows with low BCS engaged in aggressive interactions in a feed competition test (trough filled with silage that could be consumed in 15 min) on the first day of feed restriction (low: 32%; medium: 74%; high: 64%; standard error of difference = 15.4%). High-BCS cows had greater concentrations of ?-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids throughout the experimental period, which suggests more fat mobilization; however, plasma leptin and fecal glucocorticosteroid metabolite concentrations were unaffected by BCS. Whereas cows demonstrated marked responses to feed restriction, the results suggest that a BCS of 3.4, 4.6, or 5.4 in healthy cows at calving does not overwhelmingly influence this response at 47 DIM. HubMed – eating


5-Year Changes in Afterschool Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior.

Am J Prev Med. 2013 Jun; 44(6): 605-611
Arundell L, Ridgers ND, Veitch J, Salmon J, Hinkley T, Timperio A

BACKGROUND: The afterschool period holds promise for the promotion of physical activity, yet little is known about the importance of this period as children age. PURPOSE: To examine changes in physical activity of children aged 5-6 years and 10-12 years and their sedentary time in the afterschool period over 3 and 5 years, and to determine the contribution of this period to daily physical activity and sedentary behavior over time. METHODS: Data from two longitudinal studies conducted in Melbourne, Australia, were used. Accelerometer data were provided for 2053 children at baseline (Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods Study [CLAN]: 2001; Health, Eating and Play Study [HEAPS]: 2002/2003); 756 at 3-year follow-up (time point 2 [T2]); and 622 at 5-year follow-up (T3). Light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) physical activity were determined using age-adjusted cut-points. Sedentary time was defined as?100counts/minute. Multilevel analyses, conducted in April 2012, assessed change in physical activity and sedentary time and the contributions of the afterschool period to overall levels. RESULTS: Afterschool MPA and VPA decreased among both cohorts, particularly in the younger cohort, who performed less than half of their baseline levels at T3 (MPA: T1=24minutes; T3=11minutes; VPA: T1=12minutes; T3=4minutes). LPA also declined in the older cohort. Afterschool sedentary time increased among the younger (T1=42minutes; T3=64minutes) and older cohorts (T1=57minutes; T3=84minutes). The contribution of the afterschool period to overall MPA and VPA increased in the older cohort from 23% to 33% over 5 years. In the younger cohort, the contribution of the afterschool period to daily MPA and VPA decreased by 3% over 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: The importance of the afterschool period for children’s physical activity increases with age, particularly as children enter adolescence. HubMed – eating


Nutritional Quality at Eight U.S. Fast-Food Chains: 14-Year Trends.

Am J Prev Med. 2013 Jun; 44(6): 589-594
Hearst MO, Harnack LJ, Bauer KW, Earnest AA, French SA, Michael Oakes J

BACKGROUND: Frequent consumption of fast-food menu items that are high in fat, sugar, and sodium contribute to poor dietary quality, increasing individuals’ risk for diet-related chronic diseases. PURPOSE: To assess 14-year trends in the nutritional quality of menu offerings at eight fast-food restaurant chains in the U.S. METHODS: Data on menu items and food and nutrient composition were obtained in 2011 from archival versions of the University of Minnesota Nutrition Coordinating Center Food and Nutrient Database for eight fast-food restaurant chains. In this database, ingredient and nutrition information for all foods sold by the fast-food restaurants were updated biannually between 1997/1998 and 2009/2010. Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005 scores were calculated for each restaurant menu as a measure of the extent to which menu offerings were consistent with Dietary Guidelines for Americans and compared over time. RESULTS: Of a possible index total of 100 (healthiest), the HEI-2005 score across all eight fast-food restaurants was 45 in 1997/1998 and 48 in 2009/2010. Individually, restaurant scores in 1997/1998 ranged from 37 to 56 and in 2009/2010 ranged from 38 to 56. The greatest improvements in nutritional quality were seen in the increase of meat/beans, decrease in saturated fat, and decrease in the proportion of calories from solid fats and added sugars. The HEI-2005 score improved in six restaurants and decreased in two. CONCLUSIONS: The nutritional quality of menu offerings at fast-food restaurant chains included in this study increased over time, but further improvements are needed. Fast-food restaurants have an opportunity to contribute to a healthy diet for Americans by improving the nutritional quality of their menus. HubMed – eating



Diagnosing, Treating and Coping with Eating Disorders in – Lianne Castelino of speaks to Joanna Anderson, Program Director at Sheena’s Place, a support centre for individuals with eating diso…