Relapse Induced by Cues Predicting Cocaine Depends on Rapid, Transient Synaptic Potentiation.

Relapse induced by cues predicting cocaine depends on rapid, transient synaptic potentiation.

Neuron. 2013 Mar 6; 77(5): 867-72
Gipson CD, Kupchik YM, Shen H, Reissner KJ, Thomas CA, Kalivas PW

Cocaine addiction is characterized by long-lasting vulnerability to relapse arising because neutral environmental stimuli become associated with drug use and then act as cues that induce relapse. It is not known how cues elicit cocaine seeking, and why cocaine seeking is more difficult to regulate than seeking a natural reward. We found that cocaine-associated cues initiate cocaine seeking by inducing a rapid, transient increase in dendritic spine size and synaptic strength in the nucleus accumbens. These changes required neural activity in the prefrontal cortex. This is not the case when identical cues were associated with obtaining sucrose, which did not elicit changes in spine size or synaptic strength. The marked cue-induced synaptic changes in the accumbens were correlated with the intensity of cocaine, but not sucrose seeking, and may explain the difficulty addicts experience in managing relapse to cocaine use. HubMed – addiction


Determination of substance overdose in two Iranian centers: Comparison between opioids and non-opioids.

J Forensic Leg Med. 2013 Apr; 20(3): 155-7
Taghaddosinejad F, Arefi M, Fayaz AF, Tanhaeivash R

Recently, new trend toward non-opioid substances is observed in Iran. This is, therefore, to compare overdose of opioids and non-opioids origin. We performed this investigation to provide more detailed information so that preventive actions are taken in future. Over 18 month, 1876 individuals with opioid (opium, heroin, compact-heroin, buprenorphine and opiates) or non-opioid (MDMA (ecstasy), LSD, hashish and cocaine) overdose were selected. They have been compared regarding sex, age, reason of overdose, method of substance use, occupation, marital status, history of addiction in parents/siblings, duration of hospital admission and educational level. There were 1782 and 94 persons with opioid and non-opioid, respectively. Inhalation was the method of choice and women were found to have more tendencies to hallucinogens rather opioids. Moreover, use of non-opioids was observed more in individuals with university education and moreover in whom none of whose parents/siblings was addict. Policies should be planned by the governments to prevent further addictions especially to non-opioids. HubMed – addiction


[On-screen games: from excess to addiction].

Bull Acad Natl Med. 2012 Mar; 196(3): 739-41
Mouren MC, Lejoyeux M, Le Heuzey MF

HubMed – addiction