Rehabilitation in Bilingual Aphasia: Evidence for Within- and Between-Language Generalization.

Rehabilitation in bilingual aphasia: evidence for within- and between-language generalization.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2013 May; 22(2): S298-309
Kiran S, Sandberg C, Gray T, Ascenso E, Kester E

The goal of this study was to examine if there was a principled way to understand the nature of rehabilitation in bilingual aphasia such that patterns of acquisition and generalization are predictable and logical.Seventeen Spanish-English bilingual individuals with aphasia participated in the experiment. For each participant, three sets of stimuli were developed for each language: (a) English Set 1, (b) English Set 2 (semantically related to each item in English Set 1), (c) English Set 3 (unrelated control items), (d) Spanish Set 1 (translations of English Set 1), (e) Spanish Set 2 (translations of English Set 2; semantically related to each item in Spanish Set 1), and (f) Spanish Set 3 (translations of English Set 3; unrelated control items). A single-subject experimental multiple baseline design across participants was implemented. Treatment was conducted in 1 language, but generalization to within- and between-language untrained items was examined.Treatment for naming on Set 1 items resulted in significant improvement (i.e., effect size >4.0) on the trained items in 14/17 participants. Of the 14 participants who showed improvement, within-language generalization to semantically related items was observed in 10 participants. Between-language generalization to the translations of trained items was observed in 5 participants, and between-language generalization to the translations of the untrained semantically related items was observed in 6 participants.The results of this study demonstrated within- and between-language patterns that were variable across participants. These differences are indicative of the interplay between facilitation (generalization) and inhibition. HubMed – rehab

 

Treatment of proper name retrieval deficits in an individual with temporal lobe epilepsy.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2013 May; 22(2): S250-5
Minkina I, Ojemann JG, Grabowski TJ, Silkes JP, Phatak V, Kendall DL

Studies investigating language deficits in individuals with left temporal-lobe epilepsy have consistently demonstrated impairments in proper name retrieval. The aim of this Phase I rehabilitation study was to investigate the effects of a linguistically distributed word retrieval treatment on proper name retrieval in an individual with left temporal-lobe epilepsy.A 61-year old right-handed male with left temporal-lobe epilepsy (clinical onset at the age of 50) and a deficit in proper name retrieval participated in this study. A single-subject, repeated-probe ABAA design with testing before, immediately after, and 3 months after treatment completion was employed. Proper name retrieval treatment was administered 2 hr per day for 5 days.Results demonstrated improved naming on trained items and maintenance of trained items 3 months after treatment completion.Treatment, which took advantage of the individual’s undamaged linguistic networks, promoted the reorganization of networks supporting proper naming, leading to improved proper name retrieval. Further research replicating these findings in individuals with varying degrees of proper name retrieval impairment is warranted. Additionally, the mechanism behind the observed improvements in proper name retrieval needs to be investigated further using functional neuroimaging. HubMed – rehab

 

The Effect of Synbiotics on Acute Radiation-Induced Diarrhea and Its Association with Mucosal Inflammatory and Adaptive Responses in Rats.

Dig Dis Sci. 2013 May 22;
Spyropoulos BG, Theodoropoulos G, Misiakos EP, Stoidis CN, Zapatis H, Diamantopoulou K, Gialeli C, Karamanos NK, Karatzas G, Machairas A, Fotiadis C, Zografos GC, Kelekis N, Kouloulias V

BACKGROUND: Previous clinical studies advocated that probiotics beneficially affect acute radiation-induced diarrhea. These encouraging results were attributed to the restoration of the intestinal flora; however, there is lack of evidence if and how probiotics influence the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. AIMS: The present study was conducted to investigate the potential supporting role of a synbiotic preparation (combination of pro- and pre-biotics) on experimentally-induced acute radiation diarrhea from the perspective of mucosal inflammation and histological injury. METHODS: Ninety adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into six groups. Group A (non-irradiated), group B (non-irradiated/synbiotic supplemented), group C (irradiated), and group D (irradiated/synbiotic supplemented) were followed up to a week after the beginning of the experiment. Group E (irradiated) and group F (irradiated/synbiotic supplemented) were followed up for four¬†days. On the last day of the experiments tissues were harvested for structural and molecular assessments. RESULTS: Synbiotic administration could not avert the occurrence of diarrhea, but significantly attenuated its severity. This effect was associated with the significant downregulation of neutrophil accumulation and lipid peroxidation during the acute phase. During the subacute phase, synbiotic treatment significantly improved both the histological profile and radiation mucositis. These mechanisms significantly contributed to the rehabilitation of the intestinal absorptive function as further indicated from the significantly reduced weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Given the optimization of the intestinal flora exerted by synbiotics, the resolution of diarrhea relies on the suppression of the “reactive” and the augmentation of “regenerative” components of acute radiation-induced intestinal response. HubMed – rehab