Rehab Centers: Rehabilitation of Enucleated Eye by Ocular Prosthesis: Role of Parents in Prosthesis Development.

Rehabilitation of enucleated eye by ocular prosthesis: role of parents in prosthesis development.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

APSP J Case Rep. 2012 Sep; 3(3): 21
Rao J, Kumar L, Kumar P

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Diagnosis and rehabilitation of visual field defects in stroke patients: a retrospective audit.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Cerebrovasc Dis Extra. 2012 Jan; 2(1): 17-23
Sand KM, Thomassen L, Næss H, Rødahl E, Hoff JM

Visual field defects (VFD) after stroke can cause significant disability and reduction in quality of life. Adequate diagnosis of VFD and referral to visual rehabilitation are important to improve outcome. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective clinical audit to investigate how neurologists detect and follow up VFD in stroke patients in a university hospital in Norway.All patients registered in the Bergen NORSTROKE Registry from February 2006 to May 2009 with (1) occipital lobe infarctions and (2) non-occipital infarction and clinically detected VFD were included in the study. Their medical records were reviewed for referral to perimetry for examination of VFD and for referral to a visual rehabilitation program within the first year after brain injury.Of 353 patients, 34 (9.6%) were referred to perimetry and 8 (2.3%) to visual rehabilitation. Patients referred to perimetry were younger (65.1 vs. 74.7 years, p < 0.001), had lower modified Rankin Scale scores (2.53 vs. 3.47, p = 0.003), and scored lower on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale upon admission (6.68 vs. 13.90, p < 0.001). Men were more often referred to perimetry than women (73.5 vs. 26.5%, p < 0.001), and those referred were younger (61.2 vs. 75.8 years, p = 0.03).Only few patients were referred to perimetry, and even fewer were offered visual rehabilitation. Age and gender were negative predictors for referral. Neurologists' awareness of the significant disability related to VFD must be increased. Focused diagnostics on visual impairment and early referral to a visual rehabilitation program should be mandatory in stroke unit services. HubMed – rehab


Central nociceptive sensitization vs. spinal cord training: opposing forms of plasticity that dictate function after complete spinal cord injury.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Front Physiol. 2012; 3: 396
Ferguson AR, Huie JR, Crown ED, Grau JW

The spinal cord demonstrates several forms of plasticity that resemble brain-dependent learning and memory. Among the most studied form of spinal plasticity is spinal memory for noxious (nociceptive) stimulation. Numerous papers have described central pain as a spinally-stored memory that enhances future responses to cutaneous stimulation. This phenomenon, known as central sensitization, has broad relevance to a range of pathological conditions. Work from the spinal cord injury (SCI) field indicates that the lumbar spinal cord demonstrates several other forms of plasticity, including formal learning and memory. After complete thoracic SCI, the lumbar spinal cord can be trained by delivering stimulation to the hindleg when the leg is extended. In the presence of this response-contingent stimulation the spinal cord rapidly learns to hold the leg in a flexed position, a centrally mediated effect that meets the formal criteria for instrumental (response-outcome) learning. Instrumental flexion training produces a central change in spinal plasticity that enables future spinal learning on both the ipsilateral and contralateral leg. However, if stimulation is given in a response-independent manner, the spinal cord develops central maladaptive plasticity that undermines future spinal learning on both legs. The present paper tests for interactions between spinal cord training and central nociceptive sensitization after complete spinal cord transection. We found that spinal training alters future central sensitization by intradermal formalin (24 h post-training). Conversely intradermal formalin impaired future spinal learning (24 h post-injection). Because formalin-induced central sensitization has been shown to involve NMDA receptor activation, we tested whether pre-treatment with NMDA would also affect spinal learning in manner similar to formalin. We found intrathecal NMDA impaired learning in a dose-dependent fashion, and that this effect endures for at least 24 h. These data provide strong evidence for an opposing relationship between nociceptive plasticity and use-dependent learning in the spinal cord. The present work has clinical implications given recent findings that adaptive spinal training improves recovery in humans with SCI. Nociception below the SCI may undermine this rehabilitation potential.
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Can tDCS enhance treatment of aphasia after stroke?

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Aphasiology. 2012 Sep; 26(9): 1169-1191
Holland R, Crinion J

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in healthy populations have led to the exploration of the technique as an adjuvant method to traditional speech therapies in patients with post-stroke aphasia. AIMS: THE PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW IS: (i) to review the features of tDCS that make it an attractive tool for research and potential future use in clinical contexts; (ii) to describe recent studies exploring the facilitation of language performance using tDCS in post-stroke aphasia; (iii) to explore methodological considerations of tDCS that may be key to understanding tDCS in treatment of aphasia post stroke; and (iv) to highlight several caveats and outstanding questions that need to be addressed in future work. MAIN CONTRIBUTION: This review aims to highlight our current understanding of the methodological and theoretical issues surrounding the use of tDCS as an adjuvant tool in the treatment of language difficulties after stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary evidence shows that tDCS may be a useful tool to complement treatment of aphasia, particularly for speech production in chronic stroke patients. To build on this exciting work, further systematic research is needed to understand the mechanisms of tDCS-induced effects, its application to current models of aphasia recovery, and the complex interactions between different stimulation parameters and language rehabilitation techniques. The potential of tDCS is to optimise language rehabilitation techniques and promote long-term recovery of language. A stimulating future for aphasia rehabilitation!
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