Rehab Centers: Noninvasive Respiratory Management and Diaphragm and Electrophrenic Pacing in Neuromuscular Disease and Spinal Cord Injury.

Noninvasive respiratory management and diaphragm and electrophrenic pacing in neuromuscular disease and spinal cord injury.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Muscle Nerve. 2013 Feb; 47(2): 297-305
Bach JR

The purpose of this monograph is to describe noninvasive management of respiratory muscle weakness/paralysis for patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD) and spinal cord injury (SCI). Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) assists and supports inspiratory muscles, whereas mechanically assisted coughing (MAC) simulates an effective cough. Long-term outcomes will be reviewed as well as the use of NIV, MAC, and electrophrenic pacing (EPP) and diaphragm pacing (DP) to facilitate extubation and decannulation. Although EPP and DP can facilitate decannulation and maintain alveolar ventilation for high-level SCI patients when they cannot use NIV because of lack of access to oral interfaces, there is no evidence that they have any place in the management of NMD. Muscle Nerve, 2013.
HubMed – rehab


New insight into motor adaptation to pain revealed by a combination of modelling and empirical approaches.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Eur J Pain. 2013 Jan 25;
Hodges PW, Coppieters MW, Macdonald D, Cholewicki J

BACKGROUND: Movement changes in pain. Unlike the somewhat stereotypical response of limb muscles to pain, trunk muscle responses are highly variable when challenged by pain in that region. This has led many to question the existence of a common underlying theory to explain the adaptation. Here, we tested the hypotheses that (1) adaptation in muscle activation in acute pain leads to enhanced spine stability, despite variation in the pattern of muscle activation changes; and (2) individuals would use a similar ‘signature’ pattern for tasks with different mechanical demands. METHODS: In 17 healthy individuals, electromyography recordings were made from a broad array of anterior and posterior trunk muscles while participants moved slowly between trunk flexion and extension with and without experimentally induced back pain. Hypotheses were tested by estimating spine stability (Stability Index) with an electromyography-driven spine model and analysis of individual and overall (net) adaptations in muscle activation. RESULTS: The Stability Index (P?HubMed – rehab


Supportive Care in Early Rehabilitation for Advanced-Stage Radiated Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013 Jan 24;
de Leeuw J, van den Berg MG, van Achterberg T, Merkx MA

ObjectiveTo investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and supportive follow-up care needs 1 month posttreatment for patients with advanced-stage (stage III or IV) radiated head and neck cancer (HNC) who were treated with curative intent.Study DesignAn exploratory, descriptive analysis of HRQoL data obtained from 3 treatment groups: conventional radiotherapy (RT, n = 21), surgery + radiotherapy (SRT, n = 10), and chemoradiation (CRT, n = 21).SettingThe head and neck oncology center of a university hospital.Subjects and MethodsFifty-two patients completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ H&N35 self-report questionnaires 1 month posttreatment. Descriptive statistics and clinically relevant differences between the groups were analyzed.ResultsThe HRQoL outcomes between groups differed. Clinically relevant difference was observed in the RT and CRT groups with respect to dry mouth, coughing, feeling ill, use of painkillers, and the use of nutritional supplements. The RT group differed from the other groups with respect to pain and swallowing. The CRT group differed from the other groups regarding role functioning.ConclusionHealth-related quality of life differs between RT, SRT, and CRT patients 1 month posttreatment. The RT- and CRT-treated patients reported higher impairment than the patients who were treated with SRT. Nutritional intake and oral function emphasize the importance of providing supportive care to radiated advanced-stage HNC patients throughout the treatment trajectory and the need for continuation during the first few posttreatment months.
HubMed – rehab


Factors Affecting Open-Set Word Recognition in Adults With Cochlear Implants.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Ear Hear. 2013 Jan 23;
Holden LK, Finley CC, Firszt JB, Holden TA, Brenner C, Potts LG, Gotter BD, Vanderhoof SS, Mispagel K, Heydebrand G, Skinner MW

OBJECTIVE:: A great deal of variability exists in the speech-recognition abilities of postlingually deaf adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients. A number of previous studies have shown that duration of deafness is a primary factor affecting CI outcomes; however, there is little agreement regarding other factors that may affect performance. The objective of the present study was to determine the source of variability in CI outcomes by examining three main factors, biographic/audiologic information, electrode position within the cochlea, and cognitive abilities in a group of newly implanted CI recipients. DESIGN:: Participants were 114 postlingually deaf adults with either the Cochlear or Advanced Bionics CI systems. Biographic/audiologic information, aided sentence-recognition scores, a high resolution temporal bone CT scan and cognitive measures were obtained before implantation. Monosyllabic word recognition scores were obtained during numerous test intervals from 2 weeks to 2 years after initial activation of the CI. Electrode position within the cochlea was determined by three-dimensional reconstruction of pre- and postimplant CT scans. Participants’ word scores over 2 years were fit with a logistic curve to predict word score as a function of time and to highlight 4-word recognition metrics (CNC initial score, CNC final score, rise time to 90% of CNC final score, and CNC difference score). RESULTS:: Participants were divided into six outcome groups based on the percentile ranking of their CNC final score, that is, participants in the bottom 10% were in group 1; those in the top 10% were in group 6. Across outcome groups, significant relationships from low to high performance were identified. Biographic/audiologic factors of age at implantation, duration of hearing loss, duration of hearing aid use, and duration of severe-to-profound hearing loss were significantly and inversely related to performance as were frequency modulated tone, sound-field threshold levels obtained with the CI. That is, the higher-performing outcome groups were younger in age at the time of implantation, had shorter duration of severe-to-profound hearing loss, and had lower CI sound-field threshold levels. Significant inverse relationships across outcome groups were also observed for electrode position, specifically the percentage of electrodes in scala vestibuli as opposed to scala tympani and depth of insertion of the electrode array. In addition, positioning of electrode arrays closer to the modiolar wall was positively correlated with outcome. Cognitive ability was significantly and positively related to outcome; however, age at implantation and cognition were highly correlated. After controlling for age, cognition was no longer a factor affecting outcomes. CONCLUSION:: There are a number of factors that limit CI outcomes. They can act singularly or collectively to restrict an individual’s performance and to varying degrees. The highest performing CI recipients are those with the least number of limiting factors. Knowledge of when and how these factors affect performance can favorably influence counseling, device fitting, and rehabilitation for individual patients and can contribute to improved device design and application.
HubMed – rehab


Find More Rehab Centers Information…