Rehab Centers: Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 Aggravates Inflammation and Demyelination in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 aggravates inflammation and demyelination in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Neurochem Int. 2012 Dec 21;
Takeuchi C, Matsumoto Y, Kohyama K, Uematsu S, Akira S, Yamagata K, Takemiya T

Microsomal prostaglandin synthetase-1 (mPGES-1) is an inducible terminal enzyme required for prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) biosynthesis. In this study, we examined the role of mPGES-1 in the inflammation and demyelination observed in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). We induced EAE with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein(35-55) peptide in mPGES-1-deficient (mPGES-1(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice. First, we examined the histopathology in the early and late phases of EAE progression. Next, we measured the concentration of PGE(2) in the spinal cord and investigated the expression of mPGES-1 using immunohistochemistry. In addition, we examined the progression of the severity of EAE using an EAE score to investigate a correlation between pathological features and paralysis. In this paper, we demonstrate that WT mice showed extensive inflammation and demyelination, whereas mPGES-1(-/-) mice exhibited significantly smaller and more localized changes in the perivascular area. The mPGES-1 protein was induced in vascular endothelial cells and microglia around inflammatory foci, and PGE(2) production was increased in WT mice but not mPGES-1(-/-) mice. Furthermore, mPGES-1(-/-) mice showed a significant reduction in the maximum EAE score and improved locomotor activity. These results suggest that central PGE(2) derived from non-neuronal mPGES-1 aggravates the disruption of the vessel structure, leading to the spread of inflammation and local demyelination in the spinal cord, which corresponds to the symptoms of EAE. The inhibition of mPGES-1 may be useful for the treatment of human MS.
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Greater understanding of normal hip physical function may guide clinicians in providing targeted rehabilitation programmes.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

J Sci Med Sport. 2012 Dec 19;
Kemp JL, Schache AG, Makdissi M, Sims KJ, Crossley KM

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated tests of hip muscle strength and functional performance. The specific objectives were to: (i) establish intra- and inter-rater reliability; (ii) compare differences between dominant and non-dominant limbs; (iii) compare agonist and antagonist muscle strength ratios; (iv) compare differences between genders; and (v) examine relationships between hip muscle strength, baseline measures and functional performance. DESIGN: Reliability study and cross-sectional analysis of hip strength and functional performance. METHODS: In healthy adults aged 18-50years, normalised hip muscle peak torque and functional performance were evaluated to: (i) establish intra-rater and inter-rater reliability; (ii) analyse differences between limbs, between antagonistic muscle groups and genders; and (iii) associations between strength and functional performance. RESULTS: Excellent reliability (intra-rater ICC=0.77-0.96; inter-rater ICC=0.82-0.95) was observed. No difference existed between dominant and non-dominant limbs. Differences in strength existed between antagonistic pairs of muscles: hip abduction was greater than adduction (p<0.001) and hip ER was greater than IR (p<0.001). Men had greater ER strength (p=0.006) and hop for distance (p<0.001) than women. Strong associations were observed between measures of hip muscle strength (except hip flexion) and age, height, and functional performance. CONCLUSIONS: Deficits in hip muscle strength or functional performance may influence hip pain. In order to provide targeted rehabilitation programmes to address patient-specific impairments, and determine when individuals are ready to return to physical activity, clinicians are increasingly utilising tests of hip strength and functional performance. This study provides a battery of reliable, clinically applicable tests which can be used for these purposes. HubMed – rehab


Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses following an acute bout of isokinetic exercise in obese women with knee osteoarthritis.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Knee. 2012 Dec 19;
Germanou EI, Chatzinikolaou A, Malliou P, Beneka A, Jamurtas AZ, Bikos C, Tsoukas D, Theodorou A, Katrabasas I, Margonis K, Douroudos I, Gioftsidou A, Fatouros IG

BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with osteoarthritis and it is accompanied by chronic inflammation and elevated oxidative stress. Strengthening-type exercise is used in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) rehabilitation. This study determined how acute isokinetic exercise influences inflammatory responses of obese middle-aged women with KOA. METHODS: Ten obese women with KOA and 10 age/weight-matched controls performed an isokinetic exercise protocol. Assessment of performance (knee extensor/flexor torque), muscle soreness (DOMS), knee flexibility (KJRM), and pain, and blood collection were performed pre-exercise, post-exercise, and at 24h post-exercise. Blood was analyzed for creatine kinase activity (CK), lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH), CRP, leukocytes, uric acid, IL-6, TBARS, lipid hydroperoxides (LPX), protein carbonyls (PC), oxidized (GSH) and reduced glutathione (GSSG), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase activity, and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPX). RESULTS: Physical function remained unaltered by exercise (only torque at 90°/s decreased at 24h). Exercise increased DOMS throughout recovery but KJRM and pain remained unchanged. CK, LDH, and uric acid increased similarly in both groups. CRP remained unaffected by exercise while IL-6 increased only post-exercise. TBARS, PC, LPH, GSSG, and TAC increased only post-exercise in both groups. GSH and GSH/GSSG declined post-exercise and normalized thereafter. Catalase and GPX increased only in patients post-exercise. CONCLUSION: Isokinetic exercise induces only a mild inflammatory response of very short duration (<24h) without affecting physical function and pain in KOA patients suggesting that moderate strengthening-type exercise may be safe for this patient cohort. These results indicate that KOA patients may be able to receive another exercise stimulus after only 48h. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Isokinetic exercise produces minimal inflammation and pain in knee osteoarthritis patients, could be performed every 48h during rehabilitation, and up-regulates patients' antioxidant system. HubMed – rehab


The role of a total contact insole in diminishing foot pressures following partial first ray amputation in diabetic patients.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Foot (Edinb). 2012 Dec 19;
El-Hilaly R, Elshazly O, Amer A

BACKGROUND: In diabetic subjects, reulcerations following first ray amputations are particularly frequent. Treatment usually includes an in-shoe intervention to reduce plantar pressure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a total contact insole on the plantar pressure reduction in patients with partial first ray amputations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty diabetic subjects (mean age 60 years, mean body mass index 27kg/m(2)) with partial first ray amputation of one foot. Plantar pressure data was recorded using Matscan system (Tekscan vers. 6.34, Boston, USA) while standing and taking a step for three conditions (shoe, shoe with total contact insole, and shoe with flat insole). Plantar pressures were determined at the five metatarsal areas, mid foot area and medial and lateral heel areas. RESULTS: Pressures diminished significantly (P<0.05) in tested areas using the total contact insole while standing and walking. While using the flat insole, significant pressure changes were only seen while walking (P<0.05) (P<0.05). A highly significant change in pressures with the total contact insoles during walking in all areas except for the M1 area (P<0.001) as compared to that of flat insole. CONCLUSION: The conforming total contact insole showed significant reduction in plantar pressures in patients with first ray amputation. HubMed – rehab


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