Rehab Centers: Effects of Small Volume Hypertonic Saline on Acid-Base and Electrolytes Balance in Rats With Peritonitis-Induced Sepsis.

Effects of Small Volume Hypertonic Saline on Acid-Base and Electrolytes Balance in Rats with Peritonitis-Induced Sepsis.

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Shock. 2012 Oct 4;
Shih CC, Tsai MF, Chen SJ, Tsao CM, Ka SM, Huang HC, Wu CC

ABSTRACT: Our previous study has demonstrated that hypertonic saline (HS) given at 3 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery alleviates circulatory failure, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and mortality rate in rats. However, only few data exist on the application of HS in acid-base and electrolytes imbalance of sepsis. In addition, early one-dose HS administration seems to have only modest improvement on mortality rate. Thus, we evaluated the effects of HS on acid-base equilibrium and electrolytes balance in CLP-induced sepsis model and further compared with the effects of two-dose and one-dose HS administration. Male Wistar rats received CLP or sham operation followed by the administration of saline or HS (7.5% NaCl, 4 mL/kg, intravenously at 3 h and 9 h after laparotomy or CLP). The changes of haemodynamics, biochemical variables, blood gas, electrolytes, organ histology, and plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) were examined during the 18-h observation. HS given either at 3 h (one-dose administration) or at 3 h and 9 h (two-dose administration) after CLP attenuated circulatory failure, MODS, metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, neutrophil infiltration, and 18-h mortality. Moreover, both one-dose and two-dose HS administration significantly diminished plasma NO and IL-1? levels in CLP rats. However, only did two-dose HS administration significantly improve hyponatremia and hypocalcemia in septic rats. Beneficial effects of HS in septic rats may be attributed to not only reducing plasma levels of NO and IL-1?, but also improving metabolic acidosis and electrolytes imbalance. In addition, two-dose HS administration could reverse electrolytes imbalance caused by CLP.
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Diaphragm pacing and noninvasive respiratory management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease.

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Muscle Nerve. 2012 Aug 30;
Mahajan KR, Bach JR, Saporito L, Perez N

Introduction: Although it is known that continuous noninvasive ventilation (CNIV) can prolong life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND), in this study we explore similar claims for diaphragm pacing (DP). Methods: NIV and DP users’ vital capacities (VCs) over time and duration of NIV and CNIV dependence were analyzed for 354 non-DP and 8 DP ALS/MND patients. Results: Patients had a higher rate of monthly VC decline before NIV use (5.1 ± 7.6%) than during NIV use (2.5 ± 3.6%) (P < 0.01, 95% CI 0.84-4.5); the decline for 4 DP users was 3.7-20%. Fifty-five ALS/MND patients used part-time NIV for 19.9 ± 27.6 months until tracheostomy/death, whereas 113 others used it for 10.9 ± 10.5 months until CNIV dependence for another 12.8 ± 16.2 months. After placement, 7 DP users were CNIV dependent in 8.0 ± 7.0 months, whereas 6 underwent tracheostomy/died in 18.2 ± 13.7 months. Conclusions: CNIV prolonged the survival of 113 of the 354 non-DP and 6 DP ALS/MND patients by 12.8 and 10.2 months, respectively. DP provided no benefit on VC or mechanical ventilation-free survival. Muscle Nerve, 2012. HubMed – rehab


Selective Effects of Weight and Inertia on Maximum Lifting.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Int J Sports Med. 2012 Oct 5;
Leontijevic B, Pazin N, Kukolj M, Ugarkovic D, Jaric S

A novel loading method (loading ranged from 20% to 80% of 1RM) was applied to explore the selective effects of externally added simulated weight (exerted by stretched rubber bands pulling downward), weight+inertia (external weights added), and inertia (covariation of the weights and the rubber bands pulling upward) on maximum bench press throws. 14 skilled participants revealed a load associated decrease in peak velocity that was the least associated with an increase in weight (42%) and the most associated with weight+inertia (66%). However, the peak lifting force increased markedly with an increase in both weight (151%) and weight+inertia (160%), but not with inertia (13%). As a consequence, the peak power output increased most with weight (59%), weight+inertia revealed a maximum at intermediate loads (23%), while inertia was associated with a gradual decrease in the peak power output (42%). The obtained findings could be of importance for our understanding of mechanical properties of human muscular system when acting against different types of external resistance. Regarding the possible application in standard athletic training and rehabilitation procedures, the results speak in favor of applying extended elastic bands which provide higher movement velocity and muscle power output than the usually applied weights.
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