Rehab Centers: Antioxidant Properties of Neu2000 on Mitochondrial Free Radicals and Oxidative Damage.

Antioxidant properties of Neu2000 on mitochondrial free radicals and oxidative damage.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Toxicol In Vitro. 2012 Dec 22;
Visavadiya NP, McEwen ML, Pandya JD, Sullivan PG, Gwag BJ, Springer JE

Neu2000 [2-hydroxy-5-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4 trifluoromethylbenzylamino) benzoic acid] is a dual-acting neuroprotective agent that functions both as a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and a free radical scavenger. In the present study, we investigated the scavenging activity of Neu2000 on various classes of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) as well as its efficacy for reducing free radicals and oxidative stress/damage induced in spinal cord mitochondrial preparations. Neu2000 exerted scavenging activity against superoxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals, and efficiently scavenged peroxynitrite. In the mitochondrial studies, Neu2000 markedly inhibited ROS/RNS and hydrogen peroxide levels following antimycin treatment. In addition, Neu2000 effectively scavenged hydroxyl radicals generated by iron(III)-ascorbate, reduced protein carbonyl formation mediated by hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite, and prevented glutathione oxidation caused by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in isolated mitochondria. Interestingly, incubation of isolated mitochondria with Neu2000 followed by centrifugation and removal of the supernatant also resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in lipid peroxidation. This observation suggests that Neu2000 enters mitochondria to target free radicals or indirectly affects mitochondrial function in a manner that promotes antioxidant activity. The results of the present study demonstrate that Neu2000 possesses potent in vitro antioxidant activity due, most likely, to its active phenoxy group.
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Neurotization to Innervate the Deltoid and Biceps: 3 Cases.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

J Hand Surg Am. 2012 Dec 22;
Dy CJ, Kitay A, Garg R, Kang L, Feinberg JH, Wolfe SW

PURPOSE: To describe our experience using direct muscle neurotization as a treatment adjunct during delayed surgical reconstruction for traumatic denervation injuries. METHODS: Three patients who had direct muscle neurotization were chosen from a consecutive series of patients undergoing reconstruction for brachial plexus injuries. The cases are presented in detail, including long-term clinical follow-up at 2, 5, and 10 years with accompanying postoperative electrodiagnostic studies. Postoperative motor strength using British Medical Research Council grading and active range of motion were retrospectively extracted from the clinical charts. RESULTS: Direct muscle neurotization was performed into the deltoid in 2 cases and into the biceps in 1 case after delays of up to 10 months from injury. Two patients had recovery of M4 strength, and the other patient had recovery of M3 strength. All 3 patients had evidence on electrodiagnostic studies of at least partial muscle reinnervation after neurotization. CONCLUSIONS: Direct muscle neurotization has shown promising results in numerous basic science investigations and a limited number of clinical cases. The current series provides additional clinical and electrodiagnostic evidence that direct muscle neurotization can successfully provide reinnervation, even after lengthy delays from injury to surgical treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Microsurgeons should consider direct muscle neurotization as a viable adjunct treatment and part of a comprehensive reconstructive plan, especially for injuries associated with avulsion of the distal nerve stump from its insertion into the muscle.
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Changes in the pattern of sun exposure and sun protection in young children from tropical Australia.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012 Dec 22;
Smith A, Harrison S, Nowak M, Buettner P, Maclennan R

BACKGROUND: Australia has one of the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Lifetime risk is associated with childhood sun exposure. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether skin cancer prevention programs have resulted in improvements in sun-exposure and sun-protection behavior among young children in tropical Australia. METHODS: Two cohorts of 12-to 35-month-old children from Townsville, Australia, were compared: cohort 1 was recruited from hospital birth records (1991) and cohort 2 was recruited via local child-care centers (1999-2002). Children’s phenotypic characteristics were assessed. Parents completed questionnaires detailing children’s demographic characteristics, and sun-exposure and sun-protective practices. RESULTS: Although 1-year-old children from cohort 2 spent more time in the sun than those from cohort 1 (median 2.2 vs 2.8 h/d; P = .002), a higher proportion almost always wore sunscreen and a swim-shirt year round. Although more 1-year-old children in cohort 2 had experienced a sunburn (35.5% vs 51.2%; P = .007), both cohort 2 age groups experienced fewer hours of sun exposure to the back of the trunk (P < .001), were less likely to have been sunburned on the back/shoulders (age 1 year 34.8% vs 10.1% and age 2 years 52% vs 10.1%; P < .001), and acquired fewer melanocytic nevi at these sites (P < .001). LIMITATIONS: There was potential for socially desirable responses (information bias). CONCLUSION: Although duration of sun exposure in early childhood did not decrease during an 8-year period, reported use of personal sun protection did. The observed increase in popularity of swim-shirts and sunscreen between cohorts coincided with the development of significantly fewer melanocytic nevi in these children. HubMed – rehab



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