Rehab Centers: A New Temporal Window for Inducing Depressant Associative Plasticity in Human Primary Motor Cortex.

A new temporal window for inducing depressant associative plasticity in human primary motor cortex.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Clin Neurophysiol. 2013 Feb 7;
Schabrun SM, Weise D, Ridding MC, Classen J

OBJECTIVE: Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) usually refers to synaptic plasticity induced by near-synchronous activation of neuronal input and neuronal firing. However, some models of STDP predict effects that deviate from this tight temporal synchrony. We aimed to characterise the induction of STDP using paired associative stimulation (PAS) when the pre-synaptic input arrives in primary motor cortex (M1) at (i) intermediate intervals (50-80ms; PAS(50),..PAS(80)) before the post-synaptic neuron is activated and (ii) long intervals (100-450ms; PAS(-100),..PAS(-450)) after the post-synaptic neuron is activated. PAS at near-synchronicity (PAS(25)) was applied for comparison. METHODS: To characterise the physiological effects of the different PAS protocols, we examined short- and long-interval intra-cortical inhibition; intra-cortical facilitation and short- and long-latency afferent inhibition, in addition to recording MEPs in 45 healthy individuals. RESULTS: MEP amplitude was reduced at PAS intervals between -250 and -450ms, increased with PAS(25), and unaltered at the remaining intervals. There was no change in intra-cortical inhibitory or facilitatory circuits following any PAS protocol. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence of a previously unreported temporal window in which PAS induces a depression of corticospinal excitability in human M1. SIGNIFICANCE: Establishing new temporal rules for STDP broadens its applicability for therapeutic usage in future.
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Clinical utility of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide for risk stratification of patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Derivation and validation of the ADHF/NT-proBNP risk score.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Int J Cardiol. 2013 Feb 6;
Scrutinio D, Ammirati E, Guida P, Passantino A, Raimondo R, Guida V, Braga SS, Pedretti RF, Lagioia R, Frigerio M, Catanzaro R, Oliva F

BACKGROUND: NT-proBNP has been associated with prognosis in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Whether NT-proBNP provides additional prognostic information beyond that obtained from standard clinical variables is uncertain. We sought to assess whether N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) determination improves risk reclassification of patients with ADHF and to develop and validate a point-based NT-proBNP risk score. METHODS: This study included 824 patients with ADHF (453 in the derivation cohort, 371 in the validation cohort). We compared two multivariable models predicting 1-year all-cause mortality, including clinical variables and clinical variables plus NT-proBNP. We calculated the net reclassification improvement (NRI) and the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). Then, we developed and externally validated the NT-proBNP risk score. RESULTS: One-year mortalities for the derivation and validation cohorts were 28.3% and 23.4%, respectively. Multivariable predictors of mortality included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, estimated glomerular filtration rate, sodium, hemoglobin, left ventricular ejection fraction, and moderate to severe tricuspid regurgitation. Adding NT-proBNP to the clinical variables only model significantly improved the NRI (0.129; p=0.0027) and the IDI (0.037; p=0.0005). In the derivation cohort, the NT-proBNP risk score had a C index of 0.839 (95% CI: 0.798-0.880) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic was 1.23 (p=0.542), indicating good calibration. In the validation cohort, the risk score had a C index of 0.768 (95% CI: 0.711-0.817); the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic was 2.76 (p=0.251), after recalibration. CONCLUSIONS: The NT-proBNP risk score provides clinicians with a contemporary, accurate, easy-to-use, and validated predictive tool. Further validation in other datasets is advisable.
HubMed – rehab


Management of pubic symphysis diastasis with locking plates: A report of 11 cases.

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Injury. 2013 Feb 7;
Hamad A, Pavlou G, Dwyer J, Lim J

INTRODUCTION: The optimal method of fixation of symphyseal disruptions in pelvic ring injuries and post-operative rehabilitation is still debated. Options include two-hole, multi-hole and multiplanar plates. Post-operative rehabilitation can range from non-weight bearing bilaterally to full weight-bearing with crutches. Locking symphyseal plates have recently been introduced. There is a paucity of literature evaluating their use in such injuries. We present the first clinical case series of symphyseal diastasis managed with locking plates. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a single centre case series between August 2008 and December 2011 was conducted. A total of 11 patients; 2 females and 9 males with a mean age of 42 years were included. The mean radiological follow up was 27 weeks. Radiological failure and need for revision were evaluated. RESULTS: 4 patients sustained their injury as a result of a motorcycle accident, 3 patients following a car accident, 2 fell from a height and 2 had crush injuries. 9 patients had other concomitant injuries. The mechanism of injury was classified as anterior-posterior compression injury in 6 patients, vertical shear in 4 patients and combined mechanism in 1 patient. 6 patients required posterior pelvic fixation. Patients were mobilised fully or partially weight bearing. One patient had a significant radiological failure. All patients were asymptomatic at last follow-up and none required revision surgery. CONCLUSION: Our series represents the first published clinical series of patients with symphyseal diastasis managed with locking plates. We have found the use of locking plates across the pubic symphysis to be safe with low complication rates despite early weight bearing.
HubMed – rehab


[Mirror neurons: From anatomy to pathophysiological and therapeutic implications.]

Filed under: Rehab Centers

Rev Neurol (Paris). 2013 Feb 7;
Mathon B

INTRODUCTION: Mirror neurons are a special class of neurons discovered in the 1990s. They respond when we perform an action and also when we see someone else perform that action. They play a role in the pathophysiology of some neuropsychiatric diseases. STATE OF ART: Mirror neurons have been identified in humans: in Broca’s area and the inferior parietal cortex. Their responses are qualitative and selective depending on the observed action. Emotions (including disgust) and empathy seem to operate according to a mirror mechanism. Indeed, the mirror system allows us to encode the sensory experience and to simulate the emotional state of others. This results in our improved identification of the emotions in others. Additionally, mirror neurons can encode an observed action in motor stimuli and allow its reproduction; thus, they are involved in imitation and learning. PERSPECTIVES: Current studies are assessing the role of mirror neurons in the pathopysiology of social-behavior disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. Understanding this mirror system will allow us to develop psychotherapy practices based on empathic resonance between the patient and the therapist. Also, some authors report that a passive rehabilitation technique, based on stimulation of the mirror-neuron system, has a beneficial effect in the treatment of patients with post-stroke motor deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Mirror neurons are an anatomical entity that enables improved understanding of behavior and emotions, and serves as a base for developing new cognitive therapies. Additional studies are needed to clarify the exact role of this neuronal system in social cognition and its role in the development of some neuropsychiatric diseases.
HubMed – rehab



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