Regionally Specific Alterations in Functional Connectivity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Major Depressive Disorder.

Regionally specific alterations in functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex in major depressive disorder.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Psychol Med. 2012 Oct; 42(10): 2071-81
Davey CG, Harrison BJ, Yücel M, Allen NB

Depression has been associated with functional alterations in several areas of the cingulate cortex. In this study we have taken a systematic approach to examining how alterations in functional connectivity vary across the functionally diverse subregions of the rostral cingulate cortex.Eighteen patients with major depressive disorder, aged 15 to 24 years, were matched with 20 healthy control participants. Using resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI), we systematically investigated the functional connectivity of four subregions of the rostral cingulate cortex. Voxelwise statistical maps of each subregion’s connectivity with other brain areas were compared between the patient and control groups.The depressed participants showed altered patterns of connectivity with ventral cingulate subregions. They showed increased connectivity between subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsomedial frontal cortex, with connectivity strength showing positive correlation with illness severity. Depressed participants also showed increased connectivity between pregenual ACC and left dorsolateral frontal cortex, and decreased connectivity between pregenual ACC and the caudate nucleus bilaterally.The results reinforce the importance of subgenual ACC for depression, and show a close link between brain regions that support self-related processes and affective visceromotor function. The pregenual ACC also has an important role, with its increased connectivity with dorsolateral frontal cortex suggesting heightened cognitive regulation of affect ; and reduced connectivity with the caudate nucleus potentially underlying symptoms such as anhedonia, reduced motivation and psychomotor dysfunction.
HubMed – depression


A case of treatment refractory hyperemesis gravidarum in a patient with comorbid anxiety, treated successfully with adjunctive gabapentin: a review and the potential role of neurogastroentereology in understanding its pathogenesis and treatment.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Innov Clin Neurosci. 2012 Nov; 9(11-12): 31-8
Spiegel DR, Webb K

Hyperemesis gravidarum occurs in 0.3 to 10 percent of pregnant women, with a 0.8 percent hospital admission rate. While older theories supported the psychosocial model as a cause for hyperemesis gravidarum, more recent studies have shown significant data to support a biological etiology. Hyperemesis gravidarum has serious complications including include increased risk for miscarriage, low birth weight infants, dehydration, Wernicke’s encephalopathy, secondary depression, and negative attitudes toward a consecutive pregnancy. Because of these life-threatening complications and complexity of the disease, it is important to treat both somatic and psychosocial causes of hyperemesis gravidarum to provide the best care for the patient. This paper presents a case of a woman with anxiety symptoms who was experiencing severe nausea and vomiting since Week 2 of pregnancy, with minimal reduction of these symptoms on standard medications utilized in hyperemesis gravidarum. The patient had marked reduction of nausea and vomiting with adjunctive gabapentin. After a brief review of relevant neurogastroenterology, we discuss a possible mechanism for the added gabapentin.
HubMed – depression


The Relationship between Life Stress and Breastfeeding Outcomes among Low-Income Mothers.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Adv Prev Med. 2012; 2012: 902487
Dozier AM, Nelson A, Brownell E

Stressful life events during pregnancy negatively affect maternal and infant outcomes including breastfeeding initiation. Their impact on breastfeeding duration is uncertain. Given breastfeeding’s important health benefits we analyzed stressful life event types and cessation of any and exclusive breastfeeding by 4 and 13 weeks. Methods. We collected self-administered survey data at 5-7 months postpartum from over 700 primarily urban low-income US mothers. Data covered prepregnancy, prenatal, and postpartum periods including 14 stressful life events (categorized into financial, emotional, partner-associated, traumatic). Analyses included only mothers initiating breastfeeding (n = 341). Logistic regressions controlled for maternal characteristics including a breastfeeding plan. Results. All four stress categories were associated with shorter duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding. In the adjusted models, statistically significant relationships remained for financial stress (4 weeks cessation of any breastfeeding duration) and traumatic stress (13 weeks exclusive breastfeeding cessation). Controlling for stress, a longer breastfeeding plan was significantly associated with a shorter breastfeeding duration (all models) as was depression during pregnancy and current smoking (several models). Conclusions. Among low-income women, impact of stressful life events on cessation of breastfeeding may differ by stress type and interfere with achievement of breastfeeding goal. Among these stressed mothers, breastfeeding may serve as a coping mechanism.
HubMed – depression


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