Reduced Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortical Hemodynamic Response in Adult Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder as Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy During the Verbal Fluency Task.

Reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortical hemodynamic response in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013; 9: 955-62
Hirosawa R, Narumoto J, Sakai Y, Nishida S, Ishida T, Nakamae T, Takei Y, Fukui K

Near-infrared spectroscopy has helped our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders and has advantages including noninvasiveness, lower cost, and ease of use compared with other imaging techniques, like functional magnetic resonance imaging. The verbal fluency task is the most common and well established task used to assess cognitive activation during near-infrared spectroscopy. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, may play important roles in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to evaluate hemodynamic responses in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with OCD using near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task and to compare these with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responses in healthy controls.Twenty patients with OCD and 20 controls matched for age, gender, handedness, and estimated intelligence quotient participated in this study. The verbal fluency task was used to elicit near-infrared spectroscopic activation and consisted of a 30-second pre-task, followed by three repetitions of a 20-second verbal fluency task (total 60 seconds), followed by a 70-second post-task period. The near-infrared spectroscopy experiment was conducted on the same day as surveys of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Z-scores for changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin were compared between the OCD patients and controls in 14 channels set over the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar areas.During the verbal fluency task, significant task-related activation was detected in both the OCD group and the controls. Changes in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly smaller in the OCD group than in the controls, but were not statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons.Patients with OCD have reduced prefrontal, especially right dorsolateral prefrontal, cortical hemodynamic responses as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task. These results support the hypothesis that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a role in the pathophysiology of OCD. HubMed – depression

Effect of omega-3 and ascorbic acid on inflammation markers in depressed shift workers in Shahid Tondgoyan Oil Refinery, Iran: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.

J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2013 Jul; 53(1): 36-40
Khajehnasiri F, Mortazavi SB, Allameh A, Akhondzadeh S

The present study aimed to assess the effect of supplementation of omega-3 and/or vitamin C on serum interleukin-6 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration and depression scores among shift workers in Shahid Tondgoyan oil refinery. The study design was randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial. Totally 136 shift workers with a depression score ?10 in 21-item Beck Depression Rating Scale were randomly assigned to receive omega-3 (180 mg eicosapentaenoate acid and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid) or/and vitamin C 250 mg or placebo twice daily (with the same taste and shape as omega-3 and vitamin C) for 60 days in four groups. Depression score, interleukin-6 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured at baseline and after 60 days. This study showed that supplementation of omega-3 plus vitamin C is associated with a decrease in depression score (p<0.05). Supplementation of omega-3 without vitamin C, is associated with a reduction in depression score (p<0.0001) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (p<0.01). Therefore omega-3 supplementation showed a better effect on reducing depression score and high sensitivity C-reactive protein, but supplementation of vitamin C along with omega-3 did not have significant effect on change in C-reactive protein level compared to omega-3 alone. (Registration number: IRCT201202189056N1). HubMed – depression

The Relation Between Maternal and Child Depression in Mexican American Families.

Hisp J Behav Sci. 2012 Nov; 34(4): 539-556
Corona M, McCarty C, Cauce AM, Robins RW, Widaman KF, Conger RD

In an effort to better understand possible pathways that lead to a relatively high incidence of depressive symptoms among Mexican American youth, an interpersonal stress model of depression was tested using a community sample of 674 Mexican American mothers and their 5th grade children. Structural equation analyses revealed that maternal depression was positively related to mothers’ interpersonal stress in their relationships. Additionally, maternal poor parenting quality was associated with three child outcomes: lower social competence, higher interpersonal stress, and higher depressive symptoms. Child difficulties with peers, however, were not related to child depression. Overall, evidence suggests that familial factors, rather than peer factors, were related to child depression for these study participants. HubMed – depression

Psychological responses and resilience of people and communities impacted by the deepwater horizon oil spill.

Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2013; 124: 191-201
Morris JG, Grattan LM, Mayer BM, Blackburn JK

On April 20, 2010, the BP Deepwater Horizon oil platform in the United States Gulf of Mexico exploded, killing 11 persons and resulting in a 5-month spill of more than 206 million gallons of oil, affecting more than 950 miles of shoreline. Our initial studies in Baldwin County, Alabama, and Franklin County, Florida, conducted while the oil spill was still in progress, showed high levels of clinically significant anxiety and depression in persons living in coastal communities. Income loss was the most significant driver of anxiety and depression, rather than direct influx or contact with oil. Ongoing studies of these groups and their communities have been conducted under the auspices of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Deepwater Horizon Research Consortium. A year after the spill, there was no significant change in levels of anxiety or depression in our cohort. Income loss continued to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology; findings were not associated with age, gender, education, or psychiatric history. Media exposure was associated with persistent hyperarousal. Findings support a model of chronic psychological disruption after the oil spill disaster. Community studies underscored the “corrosive” nature of this type of man-made disaster (as compared with natural disasters that have hit the region), with particular concerns expressed about the compensation process administered by British Petroleum and the parties that followed. Our research highlights the very real and long-lasting impact of such disasters on individuals and communities, extending well beyond the areas where there was direct exposure to oil. HubMed – depression

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