Reconciling Parenting and Smoking in the Context of Child Development.

Reconciling Parenting and Smoking in the Context of Child Development.

Qual Health Res. 2013 Jun 17;
Bottorff JL, Oliffe JL, Kelly MT, Johnson JL, Chan A

In this article we explore the micro-social context of parental tobacco use in the first years of a child’s life and early childhood. We conducted individual interviews with 28 mothers and fathers during the 4 years following the birth of their child. Using grounded theory methods, we identified the predominant explanatory concept in parents’ accounts as the need to reconcile being a parent and smoking. Desires to become smoke-free coexisted with five types of parent-child interactions: (a) protecting the defenseless child, (b) concealing smoking and cigarettes from the mimicking child, (c) reinforcing smoking as bad with the communicative child, (d) making guilt-driven promises to the fearful child, and (e) relinquishing personal responsibility to the autonomous child. We examine the agency of the child in influencing parents’ smoking practices, the importance of children’s observational learning in the early years, and the reciprocal nature of parent-child interactions related to parents’ smoking behavior. HubMed – addiction


Heteromeric Dopamine Receptor Signaling Complexes: Emerging Neurobiology and Disease Relevance.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013 Jun 18;
Perreault ML, Hasbi A, O’Dowd BF, George SR

The pharmacological modification of dopamine transmission has long been employed as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of many mental health disorders. However, as many of the pharmacotherapies today are not without significant side effects, or they alleviate only a particular subset of symptoms, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is imperative. In light of these challenges, the recognition that dopamine receptors can form heteromers has significantly expanded the range of physiologically relevant signaling complexes as well as potential drug targets. Furthermore, as the physiology and disease relevance of these receptor heteromers is further understood, their ability to exhibit pharmacological and functional properties distinct from their constituent receptors, or modulate the function of endogenous homomeric receptor complexes may allow for the development of alternate therapeutic strategies and provide new avenues for drug design. In this review, we describe the emerging neurobiology of the known dopamine receptor heteromers, their physiological relevance in brain, and discuss the potential role of these receptor complexes in neuropsychiatric disease. We highlight their value as targets for future drug development and discuss innovative research strategies designed to selectively target these dopamine receptor heteromers in the search for novel and clinically efficacious pharmacotherapies.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 18 June 2013; doi:10.1038/npp.2013.148. HubMed – addiction


Neural mechanisms of risky decision-making and reward response in adolescent onset cannabis use disorder.

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Jun 14;
De Bellis MD, Wang L, Bergman SR, Yaxley RH, Hooper SR, Huettel SA

BACKGROUND: Neural mechanisms of decision-making and reward response in adolescent cannabis use disorder (CUD) are underexplored. METHODS: Three groups of male adolescents were studied: CUD in full remission (n=15); controls with psychopathology without substance use disorder history (n=23); and healthy controls (n=18). We investigated neural processing of decision-making and reward under conditions of varying risk and uncertainty with the Decision-Reward Uncertainty Task while participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Abstinent adolescents with CUD compared to controls with psychopathology showed hyperactivation in one cluster that spanned left superior parietal lobule/left lateral occipital cortex/precuneus while making risky decisions that involved uncertainty, and hypoactivation in left orbitofrontal cortex to rewarded outcomes compared to no-reward after making risky decisions. Post hoc region of interest analyses revealed that both control groups significantly differed from the CUD group (but not from each other) during both the decision-making and reward outcome phase of the Decision-Reward Uncertainty Task. In the CUD group, orbitofrontal activations to reward significantly and negatively correlated with total number of individual drug classes the CUD patients experimented with prior to treatment. CUD duration significantly and negatively correlated with orbitofrontal activations to no-reward. CONCLUSIONS: The adolescent CUD group demonstrated distinctly different activation patterns during risky decision-making and reward processing (after risky decision-making) compared to both the controls with psychopathology and healthy control groups. These findings suggest that neural differences in risky decision-making and reward processes are present in adolescent addiction, persist after remission from first CUD treatment, and may contribute to vulnerability for adolescent addiction. HubMed – addiction


Methamphetamine use and methadone maintenance treatment: An emerging problem in the drug addiction treatment network in Iran.

Int J Drug Policy. 2013 Jun 14;
Shariatirad S, Maarefvand M, Ekhtiari H

HubMed – addiction



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