Random Student Drug Testing as a School-Based Drug Prevention Strategy.

Random student drug testing as a school-based drug prevention strategy.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Addiction. 2012 Aug 20;
Dupont RL, Merlo LJ, Arria AM, Shea CL

AIM: This paper describes the goals and current practice of school-based random student drug testing (RSDT) as part of an overall drug prevention strategy, briefly explores the available literature evaluating its effectiveness and discusses the controversies related to RSDT. METHOD: The authors describe the rationale for RSDT programs and the prevalence of RSDT and other drug testing programs in schools. Eight major criticisms and controversies in RSDT are discussed, including those related to acceptance of RSDT, program effectiveness, costs, legality and effects of drug testing on students. The limitations of the current literature are explored. FINDINGS: Although there is limited empirical evidence to support or refute the efficacy of RSDT in schools, there remains substantial opposition to such programs, which may contribute to the paucity of empirical studies of RSDT. CONCLUSIONS: Rigorous long-term evaluations are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of various versions of RSDT programs to prevent drug use and identify students in need of assistance to become and stay drug-free.
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Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects of the Novel Adenosine A(2A) Receptor Antagonist SYN115 in Cocaine Dependent Individuals.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Addict Res Ther. 2012 Mar 28; S1:
Lane S, Green C, Steinberg J, Ma L, Schmitz J, Rathnayaka N, Bandak S, Ferre S, Moeller F

A(2A) receptor antagonists have been proposed as therapeutic tools for dopaminergically-relevant diseases, including Parkinson’s disease and substance dependence. The acute subjective and cardiovascular effects of a novel, selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist (SYN115) were examined. Across an 8-hour experimental testing day, 22 non-treatment seeking cocaine-dependent subjects received either placebo capsules (PO) at both the AM and PM dosing times (Plc/Plc, N = 9), or placebo in the AM and 100 mg SYN115 in the PM (Plc/SYN115, N =13). Cardiovascular measures (HR, BP) were obtained across the test day, and subjective effects (ARCI, VAS) were obtained once before and once after the AM and PM doses (four time points total). There were no between-group effects on cardiovascular function, however subjective effects consistent with stimulation were observed on the VAS scales in the SYN115 group. In cocaine-dependent subjects, SYN115 may produce stimulant-like effects through a unique mechanism of action. Due to known monoamine dysfunction related to chronic cocaine use, these effects may be specific to this population relative to healthy control or other patient populations.
HubMed – addiction


Personality, Psychopathology, Life Attitudes and Neuropsychological Performance among Ritual Users of Ayahuasca: A Longitudinal Study.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

PLoS One. 2012; 7(8): e42421
Bouso JC, González D, Fondevila S, Cutchet M, Fernández X, Ribeiro Barbosa PC, Alcázar-Córcoles MÁ, Araújo WS, Barbanoj MJ, Fábregas JM, Riba J

Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive plant beverage containing the serotonergic 5-HT(2A) agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and monoamine oxidase-inhibiting alkaloids (harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine) that render it orally active. Ayahuasca ingestion is a central feature in several Brazilian syncretic churches that have expanded their activities to urban Brazil, Europe and North America. Members of these groups typically ingest ayahuasca at least twice per month. Prior research has shown that acute ayahuasca increases blood flow in prefrontal and temporal brain regions and that it elicits intense modifications in thought processes, perception and emotion. However, regular ayahuasca use does not seem to induce the pattern of addiction-related problems that characterize drugs of abuse. To study the impact of repeated ayahuasca use on general psychological well-being, mental health and cognition, here we assessed personality, psychopathology, life attitudes and neuropsychological performance in regular ayahuasca users (n?=?127) and controls (n?=?115) at baseline and 1 year later. Controls were actively participating in non-ayahuasca religions. Users showed higher Reward Dependence and Self-Transcendence and lower Harm Avoidance and Self-Directedness. They scored significantly lower on all psychopathology measures, showed better performance on the Stroop test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Letter-Number Sequencing task from the WAIS-III, and better scores on the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale. Analysis of life attitudes showed higher scores on the Spiritual Orientation Inventory, the Purpose in Life Test and the Psychosocial Well-Being test. Despite the lower number of participants available at follow-up, overall differences with controls were maintained one year later. In conclusion, we found no evidence of psychological maladjustment, mental health deterioration or cognitive impairment in the ayahuasca-using group.
HubMed – addiction


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