Quality of Life After Management of Advanced Osteoradionecrosis of the Mandible.

Quality of life after management of advanced osteoradionecrosis of the mandible.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013 May 1;
Jacobson AS, Zevallos J, Smith M, Lazarus CL, Husaini H, Buchbinder D, Persky M, Urken ML

Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible is a severe complication of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. In this case series, the authors analyzed their treatment and quality of life outcomes over the past 6 years. A retrospective chart review of 42 patients treated surgically for advanced ORN was conducted. A telephone survey was conducted and quality of life (QOL) questionnaires were completed in a subset of patients. 30 patients responded to the telephone survey assessing QOL for speech, swallowing and overall functioning correlated with oral nutrition and performance status. Surgery for ORN can result in an improved QOL. Functional outcomes of oral intake, speech intelligibility, and eating in public correlated with patient rated QOL measures. A lack of improvement in QOL, despite the restoration of an intact mandible, relates to the persistent effects of chemoradiotherapy. HubMed – eating


Age at onset and clinical correlates in body dysmorphic disorder.

Compr Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 30;
Bjornsson AS, Didie ER, Grant JE, Menard W, Stalker E, Phillips KA

OBJECTIVE: Age at onset is an important clinical feature of all disorders. However, no prior studies have focused on this important construct in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). In addition, across a number of psychiatric disorders, early age at disorder onset is associated with greater illness severity and greater comorbidity with other disorders. However, clinical correlates of age at onset have not been previously studied in BDD. METHODS: Age at onset and other variables of interest were assessed in two samples of adults with DSM-IV BDD; sample 1 consisted of 184 adult participants in a study of the course of BDD, and sample 2 consisted of 244 adults seeking consultation or treatment for BDD. Reliable and valid measures were used. Subjects with early-onset BDD (age 17 or younger) were compared to those with late-onset BDD. RESULTS: BDD had a mean age at onset of 16.7 (SD=7.3) in sample 1 and 16.7 (SD=7.2) in sample 2. 66.3% of subjects in sample 1 and 67.2% in sample 2 had BDD onset before age 18. A higher proportion of females had early-onset BDD in sample 1 but not in sample 2. On one of three measures in sample 1, those with early-onset BDD currently had more severe BDD symptoms. Individuals with early-onset BDD were more likely to have attempted suicide in both samples and to have attempted suicide due to BDD in sample 2. Early age at BDD onset was associated with a history of physical violence due to BDD and psychiatric hospitalization in sample 2. Those with early-onset BDD were more likely to report a gradual onset of BDD than those with late-onset in both samples. Participants with early-onset BDD had a greater number of lifetime comorbid disorders on both Axis I and Axis II in sample 1 but not in sample 2. More specifically, those with early-onset BDD were more likely to have a lifetime eating disorder (anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa) in both samples, a lifetime substance use disorder (both alcohol and non-alcohol) and borderline personality disorder in sample 1, and a lifetime anxiety disorder and social phobia in sample 2. CONCLUSIONS: BDD usually began during childhood or adolescence. Early onset was associated with gradual onset, a lifetime history of attempted suicide, and greater comorbidity in both samples. Other clinical features reflecting greater morbidity were also more common in the early-onset group, although these findings were not consistent across the two samples. HubMed – eating


Disentangling neighborhood contextual associations with child body mass index, diet, and physical activity: The role of built, socioeconomic, and social environments.

Soc Sci Med. 2013 Apr 10;
Carroll-Scott A, Gilstad-Hayden K, Rosenthal L, Peters SM, McCaslin C, Joyce R, Ickovics JR

Obesity prevalence among US children and adolescents has tripled in the past three decades. Consequently, dramatic increases in chronic disease incidence are expected, particularly among populations already experiencing health disparities. Recent evidence identifies characteristics of “obesogenic” neighborhood environments that affect weight and weight-related behaviors. This study aimed to examine associations between built, socioeconomic, and social characteristics of a child’s residential environment on body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity. We focused on pre-adolescent children living in New Haven, Connecticut to better understand neighborhood environments’ contribution to persistent health disparities. Participants were 1048 fifth and sixth grade students who completed school-based health surveys and physical measures in fall 2009. Student data were linked to US Census, parks, retailer, and crime data. Analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling. Property crimes and living further from a grocery store were associated with higher BMI. Students living within a 5-min walk of a fast food outlet had higher BMI, and those living in a tract with higher density of fast food outlets reported less frequent healthy eating and more frequent unhealthy eating. Students’ reported perceptions of access to parks, playgrounds, and gyms were associated with more frequent healthy eating and exercise. Students living in more affluent neighborhoods reported more frequent healthy eating, less unhealthy eating, and less screen time. Neighborhood social ties were positively associated with frequency of exercise. In conclusion, distinct domains of neighborhood environment characteristics were independently related to children’s BMI and health behaviors. Findings link healthy behaviors with built, social, and socioeconomic environment assets (access to parks, social ties, affluence), and unhealthy behaviors with built environment inhibitors (access to fast food outlets), suggesting neighborhood environments are an important level at which to intervene to prevent childhood obesity and its adverse consequences. HubMed – eating


Pretreatment outcome indicators in an eating disorder outpatient group: The effects of self-esteem, personality disorders and dissociation.

Compr Psychiatry. 2013 May 2;
La Mela C, Maglietta M, Lucarelli S, Mori S, Sassaroli S

OBJECTIVE: The prognosis for eating disorders (ED) is unsatisfactory, and the literature about outcome indicators is controversial. The present study evaluates the roles of self-esteem, personality disorders (PD), and dissociation as outcome predictors. METHOD: Fifty-seven ED outpatients were recruited from a population beginning a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Enhanced (CBT-E) treatment. All patients received the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I (SCID-I), the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II (SCID-II), and completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), the Dissociation Questionnaire (DIS-Q), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). One month after the end of treatment, recovery was evaluated as meeting the DSM-IV criteria for EDs. RESULTS: A small group of patients recovered (42.2%). Low self-esteem and dissociation results correlated with a negative outcome. DISCUSSION: Dissociation may be an important moderator of psychotherapy and treatment success, as already suggested by previous studies on non-eating-related disorders. HubMed – eating