Psychosocial Impact of Adolescent Gynecomastia: A Prospective Case-Control Study.

Psychosocial impact of adolescent gynecomastia: a prospective case-control study.

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013 Apr; 131(4): 890-6
Nuzzi LC, Cerrato FE, Erikson CR, Webb ML, Rosen H, Walsh EM, Divasta AD, Greene AK, Labow BI

: The purpose of this study was to determine the physical and psychosocial impact of gynecomastia and its severity on adolescents seeking treatment as compared with healthy adolescent males.: The following surveys were administered to adolescents with gynecomastia and healthy male controls, aged 12 to 21 years: Short Form-36 Version 2, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Demographic variables were compared between the two groups, and controls were administered a short chest symptoms survey. Linear regression models, unadjusted and adjusted for body mass index category, were fit to determine the effect of case status and graded severity of gynecomastia on survey score.: Forty-seven patients with gynecomastia and 92 male control subjects participated in this study. There was no difference in mean age between the groups, although patients with gynecomastia had a significantly higher body mass index. Gynecomastia subjects had three lower Short Form-36 domain and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale scores independent of body mass index category as compared with controls, although there was no difference in Eating Attitudes Test-26 scores between the groups. Graded gynecomastia severity had no effect on survey scores, all independent of body mass index category.: Gynecomastia has a significant negative impact on primarily the psychosocial well-being of affected adolescent patients, specifically in regard to social functioning, mental health, and self-esteem. Psychosocial impact was not affected by graded severity of disease. Health care providers and patients should be aware of the psychosocial impairments associated with gynecomastia and consider early treatment for adolescents suffering from this condition, regardless of severity.: Risk, II. HubMed – eating


British English translation of the Food Craving Inventory (FCI-UK).

Appetite. 2013 Mar 27;
Nicholls W, Hulbert-Williams L

There is evidence for cultural variation in the foods that may be craved. We have designed and tested, in a sample of 234 participants, a UK-specific version of the Food Craving Inventory. A four-factor structure comprising of sweet foods, fast foods, high fat, and complex carbohydrates was extracted. The final scale was analogous with the original US scale, and shared similar associations with external eating and dietary restraint, although no association was found with BMI. The measure has potential to contribute to the development of theoretical understanding of food craving, and to measuring outcomes in intervention studies and clinical samples. HubMed – eating


[Anorexia nervosa in the light of neurocognitive functioning: New theoretical and therapeutic perspectives.]

Encephale. 2013 Mar 28;
Martinez G, Cook-Darzens S, Chaste P, Mouren MC, Doyen C

INTRODUCTION: Anorexia nervosa is a serious psychiatric disorder, for which very few validated therapeutic strategies exist. The specific sociocognitive style of anorexic patients has already been described in the 1960s: it involves a concrete style with abstraction difficulties. Current neuropsychological tests have contributed to a more precise definition of these difficulties. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DATA: IS THERE A SPECIFIC COGNITIVE PROFILE?: Contrary to common beliefs, these patients’ intellectual performances are not superior to those of the general population. However, detailed comparisons of profiles on the Weschler Scales suggest difficulties in synthesizing information and better abilities in concrete problem solving. EXCESSIVE ATTENTION TO DETAILS: The dominant hypothesis concerning the attentional dimension is the existence of a weakness in central coherence, resulting in superior detail processing and a weakness in global integration. This trend appears to be stable even after the normalization of nutritional status. IMPAIRED COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY: The impairment of set-shifting abilities leads to rigidity, expressed by inflexibility and perseveration, both in reasoning and behaviour. This reduced cognitive flexibility appears to persist after recovery, and may constitute a familial trait. In addition, this likely endophenotype seems to be independent from obsessional traits. CONTROVERSIAL SOCIAL SKILL: Alexithymia is frequently described in anorexic individuals. It is the verbal description of feelings which seems to be particularly impaired. It may explain underlying difficulties in empathy. Indeed, these subjects have lower scores on emotional tests drawn from the theory of mind. These cognitive abnormalities are well documented in pervasive developmental disorders. NEUROANATOMICAL DATA: NEUROIMAGING IN SUPPORT OF LIMBIC AND FRONTO-STRIATAL ABNORMALITIES: Evidence from neuroimaging suggests abnormalities in cortical and subcortical structures, involving the temporal and orbito-frontal lobes. Various functional hypotheses are formulated, involving fronto-striatothalamic circuits, amygdala or insula. IS ANOREXIA NERVOSA A DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER?: Pervasive developmental disorders are over-represented among anorexic subjects in comparison to the general population. Conversely, restrictive and selective eating disorders are more frequent among individuals presenting an autistic spectrum disorder. THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS: In view of the common cognitive and neuroanatomical data that are found in anorexia nervosa and neurodevelopmental disorders, we adhere to the hypothesis that anorexia nervosa may be similar to a neurodevelopmental disorder. Clinical observations suggest that this hypothesis may be especially relevant in the early forms of anorexia nervosa. These cognitive data confirm the potential relevance of new therapeutic modalities such as cognitive remediation. Initial results from its application to anorexia nervosa seem promising. CONCLUSION: A review of the recent literature highlights the possible existence of a developmental impairment of cortical and subcortical structures, associated with specific abnormalities in cognitive development such as a weakness in central coherence, reduced set-shifting ability and poor social skills. On this basis, cognitive remediation may be a promising therapeutic innovation. HubMed – eating