Psychometric Properties of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) in a Chinese-Speaking Population.

Psychometric Properties of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) in a Chinese-Speaking Population.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Behav Cogn Psychother. 2012 Nov 21; 1-5
Yang Z

Background: Studies have shown that the intolerance of uncertainty may play a key role in the aetiology and maintenance of worry and generalized anxiety disorder. Aims: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS), which had already been validated in French and English versions. Method: In a large college student sample (N = 940), the factor analysis and regression analyses were performed on the IUS. Results: The IUS had excellent internal consistency (? = 0.90) and good test-retest reliability (r = 0.75) over a 5-week period. Factor analysis showed that the IUS had a four-factor solution. Finally, the regression analysis demonstrated that IU contributed significantly to worry, after controlling for demographic variables and levels of anxiety and depression. Conclusions: The Chinese version of the IUS was a sound scale for assessing IU and the intolerance of uncertainty was an important influencing factor on worry.
HubMed – depression


Childhood and adult trauma both correlate with dorsal anterior cingulate activation to threat in combat veterans.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Psychol Med. 2012 Oct 18; 1-10
Herringa RJ, Phillips ML, Fournier JC, Kronhaus DM, Germain A

BACKGROUND: Prior studies of adult post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest abnormal functioning of prefrontal and limbic regions. Cumulative childhood and adult trauma exposures are major risk factors for developing adult PTSD, yet their contribution to neural dysfunction in PTSD remains poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the neural correlates of childhood and adult trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) within a single model. Method Medication-free male combat veterans (n = 28, average age 26.6 years) with a wide range of PTSS were recruited from the community between 2010 and 2011. Subjects completed an emotional face-morphing task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Clinical ratings included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Combat Exposure Scale (CES). A priori regions were examined through multivariate voxelwise regression in SPM8, using depressive symptoms and IQ as covariates. RESULTS: In the angry condition, CAPS scores correlated positively with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC; Brodmann area (BA) 10, z = 3.51], hippocampus (z = 3.47), insula (z = 3.62) and, in earlier blocks, the amygdala. CES and CTQ correlated positively with activation in adjacent areas of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC; BA 32, z = 3.70 and BA 24, z = 3.88 respectively). In the happy condition, CAPS, CTQ and CES were not correlated significantly with activation patterns. CONCLUSIONS: dACC activation observed in prior studies of PTSD may be attributable to the cumulative effects of childhood and adult trauma exposure. By contrast, insula, hippocampus and amygdala activation may be specific to PTSS. The specificity of these results to threat stimuli, but not to positive stimuli, is consistent with abnormalities in threat processing associated with PTSS.
HubMed – depression


Characteristics of the Colombian armed conflict and the mental health of civilians living in active conflict zones.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Confl Health. 2012 Nov 21; 6(1): 10
Bell V, Méndez F, Martínez C, Palma PP, Bosch M

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that the Colombian armed conflict has continued for almost five decades there is still very little information on how it affects the mental health of civilians. Although it is well established in post-conflict populations that experience of organised violence has a negative impact on mental health, little research has been done on those living in active conflict zones. Medecins Sans Frontieres provides mental health services in areas of active conflict in Colombia and using data from these services we aimed to establish which characteristics of the conflict are most associated with specific symptoms of mental ill health. METHODS: An analysis of clinical data from patients (N = 6,353), 16 years and over, from 2010–2011, who consulted in the Colombian departments (equivalent to states) of Narino, Cauca, Putumayo and Caqueta. Risk factors were grouped using a hierarchical cluster analysis and the clusters were included with demographic information as predictors in logistic regressions to discern which risk factor clusters best predicted specific symptoms. RESULTS: Three clear risk factor clusters emerged which were interpreted as ‘direct conflict related violence’, ‘personal violence not directly conflict-related’ and ‘general hardship’. The regression analyses indicated that conflict related violence was more highly related to anxiety-related psychopathology than other risk factor groupings while non-conflict violence was more related to aggression and substance abuse, which was more common in males. Depression and suicide risk were represented equally across risk factor clusters. CONCLUSIONS: As the largest study of its kind in Colombia it demonstrates a clear impact of the conflict on mental health. Among those who consulted with mental health professionals, specific conflict characteristics could predict symptom profiles. However, some of the highest risk outcomes, like depression, suicide risk and aggression, were more related to factors indirectly related to the conflict. This suggests a need to focus on the systemic affects of armed conflict and not solely on direct exposure to fighting.
HubMed – depression



Tools to help you be more present and awake – Dr David Purves presents the second film in this series which includes tools that can form part of a depression treatment or an anxiety therapy within a CBT therapy context. Understanding where you place your attention and then being able to excert some control over that process by using the tools offered in this film is a create start on the journey to wellbeing


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