Psychometric Properties of the Attitudes Toward Self-Revised in Italian Young Adults.

Psychometric Properties of the Attitudes toward Self-Revised in Italian Young Adults.

Depress Res Treat. 2013; 2013: 209216
Innamorati M, Tamburello S, Contardi A, Imperatori C, Tamburello A, Saggino A, Balsamo M

Objectives and Methods. Several researchers have provided support for the critical role of cognitive vulnerabilities in the development of depression. The Attitudes toward Self-Revised (ATS-R) was designed to assess three potential self-regulatory vulnerabilities to depression: High Standards (HS), Self-Criticism (SC), and Negative Generalization (NG). The aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the ATS-R in the Italian young adult population. The ATS-R, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and the Teate Depression Inventory (TDI) were administered to 857 (320 men and 537 women) young adults. Results. The best-fitting solution for the ATS-R was a 2-factor model, which obtained satisfactory homogeneity of content (HS/SC: Cronbach ? = 0.81; mean interitem correlation = 0.46. NG: Cronbach ? = 0.75; mean interitem correlation = 0.43) and significant correlation with the BDI-II (NG: Pearson r = 0.29, P < 0.01), the TDI (HS/SC: Pearson r = -0.26, P < 0.01), and the BHS (HS/SC: Pearson r = -0.29, P < 0.01; NG: Pearson r = 0.22, P < 0.01). Conclusions. The Italian version of the ATS-R seems to be a valid instrument for the study of the role of cognitive tendencies as potential vulnerability for depression. HubMed – depression

Social change and increasing of bipolar disorders: an evolutionary model.

Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2013; 9: 103-9
Carta MG

The objective of this paper is to see if behaviours defined as pathological and maladjusted in certain contexts may produce adaptive effects in other contexts, especially if they occur in attenuated form. Interactions between environment and behaviour are studied from an evolutionary standpoint in an attempt to understand how new attitudes emerge in an evolving context.Narrative review. Following an historical examination of how the description of depression in Western society has changed, we examine a series of studies performed in areas where great changes have taken place as well as research on emigration from Sardinia in the 1960s and 70s and immigration to Sardinia in the 1990s.If we postulate that mood disorders are on the increase and that the epidemic began in the 17th century with the “English malady”, we must suppose that at least the “light” forms have an adaptive advantage, otherwise the expansion of the disorder would have been self-limiting. “Compulsive hyper-responsabilization”, as well as explorative behaviours, may represent a base for adaptation in certain conditions of social change. The social emphasis in individualism and responsibility may have changed not only the frequency, but also the phenomenology of mood disorders particularly the increases in bipolar disorders. From the sociobiological standpoint the conditions that may favour “subthreshold” bipolar or depressive features are to be considered in relation to the contextual role of gender and the different risks of the two disorders in males and females. HubMed – depression

A double blind, randomized, controlled trial to study the effect of dexmedetomidine on hemodynamic and recovery responses during tracheal extubation.

J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Apr; 29(2): 162-7
Bindu B, Pasupuleti S, Gowd UP, Gorre V, Murthy RR, Laxmi MB

The ?2-adrenoreceptor agonist, dexmedetomidine, provides excellent sedation with minimal cardiovascular instability or respiratory depression and may be a useful adjunct to facilitate smooth tracheal extubation.Fifty American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I-II patients, aged 20-45 years, scheduled for elective general surgical, urological and gynecological surgeries were studied after randomization into two groups. Group A and B, received an intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine 0.75 mcg/kg or placebo respectively, over 15 minutes before anticipated time of end of surgery, in a double blind manner. Anesthesia techniques were standardized. Heart rate, systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressures were recorded while starting injection, at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 minutes after starting injection, during extubation, at 1, 3, 5 minutes after extubation, and thereafter every 5 minutes for 30 minutes. Quality of extubation was evaluated on a 5 point scale and postoperative sedation on a 6 point scale. Any event of laryngospasm, bronchospasm, desaturation, respiratory depression, vomiting, hypotension, undue sedation was noted.Heart rate, systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressures were significantly higher in group B (P < 0.05). Extubation quality score of majority of patients was 2 in group A and 3 in group B. Sedation score of most patients was 3 in group A and 2 in group B. Bradycardia and hypotension incidences were higher in group A. One patient in group A, two patients in group B had vomiting. No patient had any other side effects.Dexmedetomidine 0.75 mcg/kg administered 15 minutes before extubation, stabilizes hemodynamics and facilitates smooth extubation. HubMed – depression