Psychometric Properties and Diagnostic Accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in a Sample of Iranian Women.

Psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy of the edinburgh postnatal depression scale in a sample of Iranian women.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Iran J Med Sci. 2012 Mar; 37(1): 32-8
Kheirabadi GR, Maracy MR, Akbaripour S, Masaeli N

Background: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) has been used as a reliable screening tool for postpartum depression in many countries. This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy of the EPDS in a sample of Iranian women.Methods: Using stratified sampling 262 postpartum women (2 weeks-3 months after delivery) were selected from urban and rural health center in the city of Isfahan. They were interviewed using EPDS and Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS). Data were assessed using factor analysis, diagnosis analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, Cronbach’s alpha and Pearson correlation coefficient.Results: The age of then participants ranged 18-45 years (26.6±5.1). Based on a cut-off point of >13 for HDRS, 18.3% of the participants. The overall reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) of EPDS was 0.79. There was a significant correlation (r(2)=0.60, P value<0.01) between EPDS and HDRS. Two factor analysis showed that anhedonia and depression were two explanatory factors. At a cut-off point12 the sensitivity of the questionnaire was 78% (95% CI: 73%-83%) and its specificity was 75% (95% CI: 72%-78%). Conclusion: The Persian version of the EPDS showed appropriate psychometric properties diagnostic accuracy index. It can be used by health system professionals for detection, assessment and treatment for mothers with post partum depression. HubMed – depression


Grapheme-Color Synesthesia and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Preliminary Results From the Veterans Health Study.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Psychosom Med. 2012 Oct 31;
Hoffman SN, Zhang X, Erlich PM, Boscarino JA

ObjectivePosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with altered neuropsychological function, possibly including complex visual information processing. Grapheme-color synesthesia refers to the phenomenon that a particular letter or number elicits the visual perception of a specific color. The study objective was to assess if grapheme-color synesthesia was associated with PTSD among US veterans.MethodWe surveyed 700 veterans who were outpatients in a multihospital system in Pennsylvania. All veterans had served at least one warzone deployment. PTSD and grapheme-color synesthesia were assessed using validated research instruments.ResultsThe mean age of veterans was 59 years, and 96% were men. The prevalence of current PTSD was 7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.1-8.8), and current partial PTSD was 11% (95% CI = 9.3-14.0). The prevalence of current depression was 6% (95% CI = 4.7-8.3). Altogether, 6% (95% CI = 4.8-8.5) of veterans screened positive for grapheme-color synesthesia. Bivariate analyses suggested that grapheme-color synesthesia was associated with current PTSD (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, p = .004) and current partial PTSD (OR = 2.4, p = .013), but not current depression (OR = 1.1, p = .91). Multivariate logistic regression results, adjusting for age, sex, marital status, level of education, current psychotropic medication use, and concussion history, confirmed these results.ConclusionsGrapheme-color synesthesia seems to be associated with PTSD among veterans who had been deployed. This finding may have implications for PTSD diagnostic screening and treatment. Research is recommended to confirm this finding and to determine if synesthesia is a risk indicator for PTSD among nonveterans.
HubMed – depression


The Temporal Relation Between Pain and Depression: Results From the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Psychosom Med. 2012 Oct 31;
Hilderink PH, Burger H, Deeg DJ, Beekman AT, Oude Voshaar RC

ObjectivePain and depression are both common in old age, but their (long-term) temporal relationship remains unknown. This study is designed to determine whether pain predicts the onset of depression and vice versa.MethodsThis is a prospective, population-based cohort study with 12-year follow-up and 3-year intervals in the Netherlands (Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam). At baseline, participants were aged 55 to 85 years (n = 2028). Main measurements outcomes were incident depression defined as crossing the cutoff of 16 and showing a relevant change (?5 points) on the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale among nondepressed participants and incident pain defined as a score of 2 or higher on the pain scale of the 5-item Nottingham Health Profile in pain-free participants. Multiple imputations were adopted to estimate missing values.ResultsIn nondepressed participants (n= 1769), a higher level of pain was predictive of incident depression in multiple extended Cox regression analyses (hazard rate [HR] = 1.13 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.05-1.22], p = .001), which all remained significant after correction for sociodemographic characteristics, life-style characteristics, functional limitations, and chronic diseases (HR = 1.09 [95% CI = 1.01-1.18], p = .035). In the pain-free participants (n = 1420), depressive symptoms at baseline predicted incident pain (HR = 1.02 [95% CI: 1.01-1.04], p = .006). This depression measure did not independently predicted the onset of pain in the fully adjusted models.ConclusionsAs pain precedes the onset of depression, strategies to prevent depression in chronic pain patients are warranted. In contrast, no effects of depression on the development of subsequent pain were found when adjusting for covariates.
HubMed – depression



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