PROP Taster Status Interacts With the Built Environment to Influence Children’s Food Acceptance and Body Weight Status.

PROP taster status interacts with the built environment to influence children’s food acceptance and body weight status.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Oct 3;
Burd C, Senerat A, Chambers E, Keller KL

OBJECTIVES: Eating behaviors and obesity are complex phenotypes influenced by genes and the environment, but few studies have investigated the interaction of these two variables. The purpose of this study was to use a gene-environment interaction model to test for differences in children’s food acceptance and body weights. DESIGN AND METHODS: Inherited ability to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) was assessed as a marker of oral taste responsiveness. Food environment was classified as “healthy” or “unhealthy” based on proximity to outlets that sell fruits/vegetables and fast foods using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The cohort consisted of 120 children, ages 4-6 years, recruited from New York City over 2005-2010. Home address and other demographic variables were reported by parents and PROP status, food acceptance, and anthropometrics were assessed in the laboratory. Based on a screening test, children were classified as PROP tasters or non-tasters. Hierarchical linear models analysis of variance was performed to examine differences in food acceptance and body mass index (BMI) z-scores as a function of PROP status, the food environment (“healthy” vs. “unhealthy”), and their interaction. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results showed an interaction between taster status and the food environment on BMI z-score and food acceptance. Non-taster children living in healthy food environments had greater acceptance of vegetables than taster children living in healthy food environments (P ? 0.005). Moreover, non-tasters from unhealthy food environments had higher BMI z-scores than all other groups (P ? 0.005). Incorporating genetic markers of taste into studies that assess the built environment may improve the ability of these measures to predict risk for obesity and eating behaviors. Obesity (2012).
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Direct Experience and the Course of Eating Disorders in Patients on Partial Hospitalization: A Pilot Study.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2013 Feb 12;
Soler J, Soriano J, Ferraz L, Grasa E, Carmona C, Portella MJ, Seto V, Alvarez E, Pérez V

Awareness of sensory experience in the present moment is central to mindfulness practice. This type of information processing, in contrast to an analytical evaluative style of processing, could be more beneficial for the course of those psychiatric disorders characterized by ruminative and content-centred processing, such as eating disorders (EDs). We performed a pilot study to assess the relation between patients’ approach to information processing and the duration and severity of EDs. Fifty-seven patients with a diagnosed ED were included in the study and participated in a self-guided eating activity to asses the primary information processing mode based on mindfulness concepts of ‘Direct Experience’ and ‘Thinking About’. Additionally, dispositional mindfulness was assessed by the Five Factors Mindfulness Questionnaire, and anxiety during the experiment was determined by means of a 10-point visual analogue scale. We found that a higher level of self-reported Direct Experience was inversely associated with several severity variables and with anxiety levels. Direct Experience was predicted by a low anxiety level, less severe illness, and higher scores on one mindfulness facet (Observing). Our results suggest that a Direct Experience processing approach is associated with better ED outcomes. Future studies should be carried out to clarify the repercussion of mindfulness training on EDs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
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Kidney stones in children and teenagers in the central coast region of Tunisia.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Iran J Pediatr. 2012 Sep; 22(3): 290-6
Alaya A, Belgith M, Hammadi S, Nouri A, Najjar MF

Since 1980s, the clinical and biological characteristics of urolithiasis in Tunisian children have continuously evolved. This retrospective study defines the current status of urolithiasis among children and adolescents in Tunisia.We retrospectively reviewed the records of 310 children and adolescents (age: 3 months – 19 years) between 2003 and 2010, holding urolithiasis. A first-line metabolic, urine and plasma work-up was performed in all patients. Physical and chemical analysis of the stones was performed respectively by stereomicroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Statistical analysis of the results was performed with SPSS 11.0 software. The Chi-square test was used for comparison of percentages.Our study shows a male predominance of urolithiasis with a sex ratio of 1.5. Stones were located in the upper urinary tract in 70.7% of cases. Calcium oxalate was the predominant constituent in 52.6% of stones. There was an increasing prevalence of calcium oxalate stones according to age in both genders (48.6% in infants vs 68.5% in teenagers (P<0.01)). Struvite was more frequent in patients aged 2-9 years (P<0.02) and significantly more prevalent in boys than in girls (P<0.001). Ammonium urate stones were observed in 14.2% and were more frequent in infants.Our results emphasize a high percentage of calcium oxalate stones and a low percentage of struvite stones. The persistence of urate stones reflects the particular eating habits and the infectious risk factors. The patient's age is an important factor that must be taken into account during etiopathogenic work-up. HubMed – eating


A prospective Cross-sectional Cohort Assessment of Health, Physical, and Behavioral Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Maedica (Buchar). 2012 Sep; 7(3): 193-200
Geier DA, Kern JK, Geier MR

Objectives: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnostically defined by impaired socialization/communication and stereotypical behaviors. Health, physical, and behavioral problems have also been described in subjects diagnosed with an ASD, but have usually been examined in isolation. The purpose of the present study was to for the first time, systematically and quantitatively, examines health, physical and behavioral problems in a cohort of subjects diagnosed with an ASD.Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional ASD cohort (n=54) was evaluated for health, physical, and behavioral symptoms derived from parentally completed Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) forms. The study protocol received Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval from Liberty IRB, Inc (Deland, FL).Outcomes: The results showed the following occurrence of symptoms among study participants: gastrointestinal disturbances=48%, incontinence=57%, sleep problems=57%, eating disorders=94%, hyperactivity=67%, lethargy=26%, sensory processing problems=85%, anxiety/fear=74%, behavioral problems=89%, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors=92%. Of all of the areas examined, eating problems, behavioral problems, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors, were reported by the parents to be the most serious and problematic.Conclusions: The present findings, taken together with previous research, suggest that subjects diagnosed with an ASD have significant health, physical, and behavioral problems beyond the symptoms evaluated in the diagnostic criteria used to diagnosis an ASD. The present findings also suggest the ATEC provides an economical means for healthcare providers to identify health, physical, and behavioral problems in subjects diagnosed with an ASD.
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Physical activity, dietary habits and overall health in overweight and obese children and youth with intellectual disability or autism.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Res Dev Disabil. 2013 Feb 6; 34(4): 1170-1178
Hinckson EA, Dickinson A, Water T, Sands M, Penman L

In children and youth with disability, the risk of obesity is higher and is associated with lower levels of physical activity, inappropriate eating behaviors, and chronic health conditions. We determined the effectiveness of a program in managing weight, through changes in physical activity and nutrition behaviors in overweight and obese New Zealand children and youth with intellectual disability or autism. Twenty-two children and youth 14±4 y (mean±SD) and their families participated in a 10-week school-based program. The program consisted of 18 sessions focusing on physical activity and nutrition. Changes were measured immediately after completion of the program (post 1) and at 24 weeks (follow up). Fitness was assessed with the six-minute walk-test (6MWT) and body fatness via waist circumference and BMI. Physical activity and nutrition changes were measured by means of proxy reporting and interviews with parents. Individual interviews were conducted with school teachers and program leaders at 24 weeks to gain feedback regarding the program. Most quantitative outcomes were either unclear or trivial. The only possible change was observed in the six-minute walk-test where 24 weeks post program where participants walked 51m further. There was however, a substantial reduction in the consumption of confectionery and chocolate at the two measurement points. Parents commented that during the program there were less hospital visits and absences from school related to illness. The program assisted in the development of a supportive community network and participants’ abilities to partake in family and community activities. This the first study to report on the results of a physical activity and nutrition program targeted in children and youth with intellectual disability and autism. The results of this study may support and inform future developments of an integrated weight management and prevention program to enhance the health and well being in children and youth with disabilities.
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