Programming Exercise Intensity in Patients on Beta-Blocker Treatment: The Importance of Choosing an Appropriate Method.

Programming exercise intensity in patients on beta-blocker treatment: the importance of choosing an appropriate method.

Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2013 Aug 5;
Díaz-Buschmann I, Jaureguizar KV, Calero MJ, Aquino RS

To verify the usefulness of current recommended level of target exercise heart rate (HR) and of different HR-based methods for calculating target HR in patients with and without beta-blocker treatment.We studied 53 patients not treated with beta-blocker and 159 patients on beta-blocker treatment. All patients underwent a maximal exercise test with gas analysis, and first ventilatory threshold (VT1 or aerobic threshold), second ventilatory threshold (VT2 or anaerobic threshold), time of exercise, maximum load, metabolic parameters, HR at rest (HRrest), HRpeak, HR at VT1 (HRVT1) and at VT2 (HRVT2), and 75, 80, and 85% of HRmax (HR75%, HR80%, HR85%) were calculated. Exercise HR was also determined using the Karvonen formula, applying 60, 70, and 80% of the heart rate reserve (HRR) (HRKarv0.6, HRKarv0.7, and HRKarv0.8).This study included 102 patients on a beta-blocker and 39 not treated with negative cronotropic effect drugs. Maximum load, metabolic parameters, HRrest, HRpeak, HRVT1, and HRVT2 were significantly lower in patients on beta-blocker treatment. The proportion of patients with a HR75%, HR80%, HR85%, HRKarv0.6, HRKarv0.7, and HRKarv0.8 VT2 was very high and depended on whether patients were on beta-blocker treatment.Prescribed exercise intensity should be within VT1 and VT2, so that the efficacy and safety is guaranteed. If determining VT1 and VT2 is not possible, HR-based methods can be used, but with caution. In fact, there will be always a proportion of patients training below VT1 or above VT2. On the other hand, recommendations for patients on a beta-blocker should be different from patients not receiving a beta-blocker. Patients not treated with a beta-blocker should exercise at HRKarv0.7 or at HR85%. In patients on a beta-blocker, we recommend preferentially a target HR of HRKarv0.6 or HR80%. HubMed – rehab

Seizures after decompressive hemicraniectomy for ischaemic stroke.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013 Aug 5;
Creutzfeldt CJ, Tirschwell DL, Kim LJ, Schubert GB, Longstreth WT, Becker KJ

The risk of seizures after malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction with decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) is uncertain. Also unknown is how this complication influences survivors’ recovery and quality of life.We retrospectively reviewed medical charts of all patients admitted to Harborview Medical Center between 1 January 2002 and 31 June 2011 for space-occupying MCA ischaemic stroke and who underwent DHC. Survivors and their surrogates were invited to participate in a telephone or in-person interview.Fifty-five patients were followed for a median of 311 days (IQR 134-727). Twenty-seven patients (49%) had seizures, 25 (45%) developed epilepsy and 21 (38%) achieved moderate disability or better (modified Rankin Scale score ?3) by 1 year after stroke onset. The only factor significantly associated with seizure occurrence was male gender. Median time from stroke to first seizure was 222 days, with a cluster of first seizures within weeks after cranioplasty; only two of the first seizures occurred right around the time of stroke onset. Follow-up time was significantly longer for patients with seizures (605 days, IQR 297-882) than for those without (221 days, IQR 104-335). Of the 20 patients interviewed, 12 achieved moderate disability or better, 15 experienced a seizure with 6 indicating the seizure was a major drawback. Regardless, all 20 would have chosen DHC again.In this case series, patients were at high risk of developing seizures after malignant MCA stroke with DHC, especially after cranioplasty. Assuming these findings are replicated, means should be sought to reduce the occurrence of this complication. HubMed – rehab

Effect of 45° reclining sitting posture on swallowing in patients with Dysphagia.

Yonsei Med J. 2013 Sep 1; 54(5): 1137-42
Park BH, Seo JH, Ko MH, Park SH

Purpose: To determine the effect of a 45° reclining sitting posture on swallowing in patients with dysphagia. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four patients with dysphagia were evaluated. Videofluoroscopic swallowing study was performed for each patient in 90° upright and in 45° reclining sitting posture. Patients swallowed 5 types of boluses twice: sequentially 2 mL thin liquid, 5 mL thin liquid, thick liquid, yogurt, and cooked rice. Data such as the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), oral transit time (OTT), pharyngeal delay time (PDT), pharyngeal transit time (PTT), residue in valleculae and pyriform sinuses, premature bolus loss, and nasal penetration were obtained. Results: The mean PAS on the 2 mL thin liquid decreased significantly in the 45° reclining sitting posture (p=0.007). The mean PAS on 5 mL thin liquid in the 45° reclining sitting posture showed decreasing tendency. The residue in valleculae decreased significantly for all boluses in the 45° reclining sitting posture (p<0.001, p=0.002, p=0.003, p<0.001, p=0.020, respectively). The residue in pyriform sinuses increased significantly on 5 mL thin liquid, thick liquid, and yogurt (p=0.031, p=0.020, p=0.002, respectively). There were no significant differences in OTT, PDT, PTT, premature bolus loss, and nasal penetration between both postures. Conclusion: PAS on 2 mL thin liquid and residue in valleculae on all types of boluses were decreased in a 45° reclining sitting posture. Therefore, we believe that the 45° reclining sitting posture on swallowing is beneficial for the patients with penetration or aspiration on small amounts of thin liquid and large amounts of residue in valleculae. HubMed – rehab