Prior Sexual Trauma and Adjustment Following the Virginia Tech Campus Shootings: Examination of the Mediating Role of Schemas.

Prior Sexual Trauma and Adjustment Following the Virginia Tech Campus Shootings: Examination of the Mediating Role of Schemas.

Psychol Trauma. 2012 Nov; 4(6): 579-586
Littleton HL, Grills-Taquechel AE, Axsom D, Bye K, Buck KS

A sizable body of research supports trauma’s cumulative nature. However, few studies have evaluated potential mechanisms through which the experience of multiple traumas leads to elevated distress. The current study sought to evaluate differences between sexual trauma victims and women who had not experienced sexual trauma in their adjustment following a mass trauma (college women exposed to the 2007 Virginia Tech campus shooting). In addition, the study examined whether maladaptive schema change (lower self-worth and less belief in benevolence) and social support mediated the relationship between experiencing multiple traumas (sexual trauma and the campus shooting) and distress. The sample consisted of 215 college women who were assessed preshooting as well as two months and one year following the campus shooting. Women who had experienced sexual trauma (either contact sexual abuse or sexual assault) were compared to those who had not on their one-year postshooting PTSD and depressive symptoms. Results supported that sexual trauma victims reported significantly more depressive symptoms and shooting-related PTSD as well as less belief in benevolence and lower family support. Family support and benevolence beliefs at the two month postshooting assessment were significant medi-ators of the association between sexual trauma history and depression and PTSD. Implications of the findings for future research evaluating the cumulative impact of multiple traumatic experiences are discussed. HubMed – depression


Geriatric assessment is associated with completion of chemotherapy, toxicity and survival in older adults with cancer.

J Geriatr Oncol. 2013 Jul; 4(3): 227-234
Wildes TM, Ruwe AP, Fournier C, Gao F, Carson KR, Piccirillo JF, Tan B, Colditz GA

Our purpose was to determine whether geriatric assessments are associated with completion of a chemotherapy course, grade III/IV toxicity or survival in older adults with cancer.In this prospective cohort study, patients aged 65 years and older with colorectal, lung, or breast cancer or lymphoma completed a brief geriatric assessment prior to chemotherapy. Endpoints included completion of the planned number of chemotherapy cycles, grade III/IV toxicity and survival. Multivariate logistic regression determined which factors were independently associated with completion of therapy, grade III/IV toxicity or death.Sixty-five patients were enrolled in the study. The median age was 73 years (range 65-89). Geriatric syndromes were common, including depression (21.5%), dependence on others to carry out instrumental activities of daily living (38.5%) and activities of daily living (10.8%), and comorbidities (mild 47.7%, moderate 20%, severe 15.4%). Of the 65 participants, 67.6% completed the planned number of chemotherapy cycles. Curative intent therapy [OR 4.97 (95% CI 1.21-18.81)], Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 2-3 [OR 0.089 (0.015-0.53)] and renal function [OR 1.03 (1.00-1.06) per ml/min] were significantly associated with therapy completion. Furthermore, 31.1% experienced grade III/IV non-hematologic toxicity. Moderate to severe comorbidities significantly increased the risk of grade III/IV non-hematologic toxicity [OR 6.13 (1.65-22.74)]. Patients who received chemotherapy with curative intent had lower mortality [HR 0.15 (0.06-0.42)], while patients who reported a fall in the month prior to chemotherapy had an increased risk of death [HR 3.20 (1.13-9.11)].Geriatric assessment is associated with completion of a planned number of cycles of chemotherapy, grade III/IV non-hematologic toxicity and mortality. HubMed – depression


Adolescents in Primary Care with Sub-Threshold Depressed Mood Screened for Participation in a Depression Prevention Study: Co-Morbidity and Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms.

Open Psychiatr J. 2010; 4: 10-18
Van Voorhees BW, Melkonian S, Marko M, Humensky J, Fogel J

Adolescents in primary care with sub-threshold depression symptoms may be candidates for early intervention to prevent onset of full major depressive disorder. Little is known about this population.We screened consecutive adolescents (ages 14-21) in 13 primary care sites for presence of depression symptoms for “at least a few days” or “nearly every day” in the last two weeks for possible enrollment in a primary care/Internet-based depression prevention intervention (CATCH-IT). We report illness severity, prevalence of self-harm ideation, prevalence correlates (automatic negative thoughts, generalized self-efficacy, perceived social support from family and friends) and co-occurring symptoms of other mental disorders with depressed mood.Twenty-one percent (N=293) of those screened reported a core symptom of depressive disorder of which 83 enrolled in the study and were analyzed. The sample was 40% ethnic minority with a mean zip code household income of $ 40,249 (SD=$ 14,500). Reporting at least one symptom of another mental disorder was common for anxiety (48%, N=40), substance abuse (31%, N=15), conduct disorder (71%, N=53), as were self-harm ideation (16%, N=12) and reporting school impairment (100%, N=83). Prevalence correlates for current depressive symptoms included low self-efficacy, automatic negative thoughts, perceived low peer acceptance, and school impairment.Adolescents with sub-threshold depressed mood have frequent co-morbid symptoms that may need to be considered in developing prevention interventions. Early intervention targets to reduce depressed mood include pessimistic thinking, low self-efficacy, low peer acceptance, and school impairment. HubMed – depression


A relict lineage and new species of green palm-pitviper (Squamata, Viperidae, Bothriechis) from the Chortís Highlands of Mesoamerica.

Zookeys. 2013; 77-106
Townsend JH, Medina-Flores M, Wilson LD, Jadin RC, Austin JD

A new species of palm-pitviper of the genus Bothriechis is described from Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat in northern Honduras. The new species differs from congeners by having 19 dorsal scale rows at midbody, a bright green dorsal coloration in adults, the prelacunal scale fused to the second supralabial, and in representing a northern lineage that is sister to Bothriechis lateralis, which is distributed in Costa Rica and western Panama and is isolated from the new taxon by the Nicaraguan Depression. This represents the 15th endemic species occurring in Refugio de Vida Silvestre Texíguat, one of the richest herpetofaunal sites in Honduras, itself being the country with the highest degree of herpetofaunal endemism in Central America. We name this new species in honor of a Honduran conservationist slain in fighting against illegal logging, highlighting the sacrifices of rural activists in battling these issues and the critical importance of conservation in these areas. HubMed – depression


Girls’ Tobacco and Alcohol Use During Early Adolescence: Prediction from Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms Across Two Studies.

J Child Adolesc Subst Abuse. 2012 7; 21(3): 254-272
Leve LD, Harold GT, Van Ryzin MJ, Elam K, Chamberlain P

Associations between trajectories of depressive symptoms and subsequent tobacco and alcohol use were examined in two samples of girls assessed at age 11.5 (T1), 12.5 (T2), and 13.5 (T3). Two samples were examined to ascertain if there was generalizability of processes across risk levels and cultures. Study 1 comprised a United States-based sample of 100 girls in foster care; Study 2 comprised 264 girls in a United Kingdom community-based sample. Controlling for T1 aggression and T1 substance use, individual variation in intercept and slope of depressive symptoms was associated with tobacco use at T3 in both samples: greater intercept and increases in depressive symptoms increased the risk for T3 tobacco use. A similar pattern of associations was found for alcohol use in Study 1. The replicability of findings for the prediction of tobacco use from trajectories of depressive symptoms suggests potential benefit in identifying girls with elevated depressive symptoms for tobacco use prevention programs prior to the transition to secondary school. HubMed – depression