Prevention of Arterial Graft Spasm in Rats Using a Vasodilator-Eluting Biodegradable Nano-Scaled Fibre.

Prevention of arterial graft spasm in rats using a vasodilator-eluting biodegradable nano-scaled fibre.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2013 Mar 19;
Yagami K, Yamawaki-Ogata A, Satake M, Kaneko H, Oshima H, Usui A, Ueda Y, Narita Y

OBJECTIVESArterial graft spasm occasionally causes circulatory collapse immediately following coronary artery bypass graft. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of our developed materials, which were composed of milrinone (phosphodiesterase III inhibitor) or diltiazem (calcium-channel blocker), with nano-scaled fibre made of biodegradable polymer to prevent arterial spasm.METHODSMilrinone- or diltiazem-releasing biodegradable nano-scaled fibres were fabricated by an electrospinning procedure. In vivo milrinone- or diltiazem-releasing tests were performed to confirm the sustained release of the drugs. An in vivo arterial spasm model was established by subcutaneous injection of noradrenalin around the rat femoral artery. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as follows: those that received 5 mg of milrinone-releasing biodegradable nano-scaled fibre (group M, n = 14); 5 mg of diltiazem-releasing biodegradable nano-scaled fibre (group D, n = 12); or those that received fibre without drugs (as a control; group C, n = 14) implanted into the rat femoral artery. In the fourth group, sham operation was performed (group S, n = 10). One day after the implantation, noradrenalin was injected in all groups. The femoral arterial blood flow was measured continuously before and after noradrenalin injection. The maximum blood flow before noradrenalin injection and minimum blood flow after noradrenalin injection were measured.RESULTSIn vivo drug-releasing test revealed that milrinone-releasing biodegradable nano-scaled fibre released 78% of milrinone and diltiazem-releasing biodegradable nano-scaled fibre released 50% diltiazem on the first day. The ratios of rat femoral artery blood flow after/before noradrenalin injection in groups M (0.74 ± 0.16) and D (0.72 ± 0.05) were significantly higher than those of groups C (0.54 ± 0.09) and S (0.55 ± 0.16) (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONNoradrenalin-induced rat femoral artery spasm was inhibited by the implantation of milrinone-releasing biodegradable nano-scaled fibre or diltiazem-releasing biodegradable nano-scaled fibre. These results suggested that our materials might be effective for the prevention of arterial graft spasm after coronary artery bypass graft. HubMed – drug


Fluorescent Polymeric Micelles with Aggregation-Induced Emission Properties for Monitoring the Encapsulation of Doxorubicin.

Macromol Biosci. 2013 Mar 19;
Chen JI, Wu WC

A new type of fluorescent polymeric micelles is developed by self-assembly from a series of amphiphilic block copolymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly[styrene-co-(2-(1,2,3,4,5-pentaphenyl-1H-silol-1-yloxy)ethyl methacrylate)] [PEG-b-P(S-co-PPSEMA)]. Their capability of loading doxorubicin (DOX) is investigated by monitoring the loading content, encapsulation efficiency, and photophysical properties of micelles. Förster resonance energy transfer from PPSEMA to DOX is observed in DOX-loaded micelles, which can serve as an indication of successful encapsulation of DOX in these micelles. The application of this new type of fluorescent polymeric micelles as a fluorescent probe and an anticancer drug carrier simultaneously is explored by studying the intracellular uptake of DOX-loaded micelles. HubMed – drug


Drug safety data mining with a tree-based scan statistic.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013 Mar 20;
Kulldorff M, Dashevsky I, Avery TR, Chan AK, Davis RL, Graham D, Platt R, Andrade SE, Boudreau D, Gunter MJ, Herrinton LJ, Pawloski PA, Raebel MA, Roblin D, Brown JS

PURPOSE: In post-marketing drug safety surveillance, data mining can potentially detect rare but serious adverse events. Assessing an entire collection of drug-event pairs is traditionally performed on a predefined level of granularity. It is unknown a priori whether a drug causes a very specific or a set of related adverse events, such as mitral valve disorders, all valve disorders, or different types of heart disease. This methodological paper evaluates the tree-based scan statistic data mining method to enhance drug safety surveillance. METHODS: We use a three-million-member electronic health records database from the HMO Research Network. Using the tree-based scan statistic, we assess the safety of selected antifungal and diabetes drugs, simultaneously evaluating overlapping diagnosis groups at different granularity levels, adjusting for multiple testing. Expected and observed adverse event counts were adjusted for age, sex, and health plan, producing a log likelihood ratio test statistic. RESULTS: Out of 732 evaluated disease groupings, 24 were statistically significant, divided among 10 non-overlapping disease categories. Five of the 10 signals are known adverse effects, four are likely due to confounding by indication, while one may warrant further investigation. CONCLUSION: The tree-based scan statistic can be successfully applied as a data mining tool in drug safety surveillance using observational data. The total number of statistical signals was modest and does not imply a causal relationship. Rather, data mining results should be used to generate candidate drug-event pairs for rigorous epidemiological studies to evaluate the individual and comparative safety profiles of drugs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. HubMed – drug


Pharmacokinetic parameter sets of alfentanil revisited: optimal parameters for use in target controlled infusion and anaesthesia display systems.

Br J Anaesth. 2013 Mar 19;
Sigmond N, Baechtold M, Schumacher PM, Hartwich V, Schnider TW, Luginbühl M

BACKGROUND: /st>In open TCI and anaesthesia display systems, the choice of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameter sets of opioids is clinically relevant. Accuracy and bias of the PK models may be affected by administration mode and the co-administered hypnotic drug. We retrospectively evaluated the performance of eight PK parameter sets for alfentanil in two data sets (infusion and bolus application). METHODS: /st>With the dosing history from two studies in orthopaedic patients anaesthetized with propofol or inhalation anaesthetics the alfentanil plasma concentration over time was calculated with eight PK parameter sets. Median absolute performance error (MDAPE), log accuracy, median performance error (MDPE), log bias, Wobble, and Divergence were computed. Mann-Whitney rank test with Bonferroni correction was used for comparison between bolus and infusion data, repeated measures analysis of variance on ranks was used for comparison among parameter sets. RESULTS: /st>The parameters by Scott (original and weight adjusted) and Fragen had a MDAPE ?30% and a median log accuracy <0.15 independent of the administration mode, while MDPE was within ±20% and log bias nearly within ±0.1, respectively. The sets by Maitre and Lemmens were within these limits only in the bolus data. All other parameter sets were outside these limits. CONCLUSIONS: /st>In healthy orthopaedic patients, the PK parameters by Scott and by Maitre were equally valid when alfentanil was given as repeated boluses. When given as infusion, the Maitre parameters were less accurate and subject to a significant bias. We cannot exclude that the difference between bolus and infusion is partially because of the different hypnotics used. HubMed – drug



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