Prevalence Survey of Infection With Treponema Pallidum Among HIV-Positive Patients in Tehran.

Prevalence survey of infection with Treponema pallidum among HIV-positive patients in Tehran.

Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013 Apr; 3(4): 334-6
Badie , Yavari Z, Esmaeeli S, Paydary K, Emamzadeh-Fard S, Seyedalinaghi S, Rasoulinejad M, Mohraz M

To identify the frequency of syphilis among Iranian HIV-positive patients.A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of syphilis and HIV co-infection among 450 patients diagnosed with HIV infection was conducted between 2004 and 2008 at Imam Khomeini hospital, Tehran, Iran. The lab tests including CD4 cell count, cerebrospinal fluid, veneral disease research laboratory (VDRL), fluorescent treponema antibody-absorption (FTA-Abs) and viral load were performed for all the patients. Data regarding medical history and their demographics were also collected.Of all 450 HIV-positive patients, 24 (5.3%) had a positive VDRL test and only two men had a FTA-Abs positive test which means 0.45% of them had a definite co-infection of syphilis. 65.3% of the HIV-positive patients were injection drug users that the co-infection prevalence of them was 0.7%. We did not find any patient with neurosyphilis.Considering the increasing prevalence of HIV and also extensive use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in developing nations, the diagnosis of syphilis should be timely established using screening tests among such patients. HubMed – drug


Cytotoxic and antibacterial substances against multi-drug resistant pathogens from marine sponge symbiont: Citrinin, a secondary metabolite of Penicillium sp.

Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013 Apr; 3(4): 291-6
Subramani R, Kumar R, Prasad P, Aalbersberg W, Retheesh ST

To Isolate, purify, characterize, and evaluate the bioactive compounds from the sponge-derived fungus Penicillium sp. FF001 and to elucidate its structure.The fungal strain FF001 with an interesting bioactivity profile was isolated from a marine Fijian sponge Melophlus sp. Based on conidiophores aggregation, conidia development and mycelia morphological characteristics, the isolate FF001 was classically identified as a Penicillium sp. The bioactive compound was identified using various spectral analysis of UV, high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Further minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) assay and brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay were also carried out to evaluate the biological properties of the purified compound.Bioassay guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract of a static culture of this Penicillium sp. by different chromatographic methods led the isolation of an antibacterial, anticryptococcal and cytotoxic active compound, which was identified as citrinin (1). Further, citrinin (1) is reported for its potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), rifampicin-resistant S. aureus, wild type S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium showed MICs of 3.90, 0.97, 1.95 and 7.81 µg/mL, respectively. Further citrinin (1) displayed significant activity against the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC 3.90 µg/mL), and exhibited cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae LD50 of 96 µg/mL.Citrinin (1) is reported from sponge associated Penicillium sp. from this study and for its strong antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens including cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae, which indicated that sponge associated Penicillium spp. are promising sources of natural bioactive metabolites. HubMed – drug


Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview.

Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013 Apr; 3(4): 253-266
Kesarwani K, Gupta R, Mukerjee A

Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. HubMed – drug