Prevalence of Trachoma in the Far North Region of Cameroon: Results of a Survey in 27 Health Districts.

Prevalence of trachoma in the far north region of cameroon: results of a survey in 27 health districts.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013 May; 7(5): e2240
Noa Noatina B, Kagmeni G, Mengouo MN, Moungui HC, Tarini A, Zhang Y, Bella AL

Cameroon is known to be endemic with trachoma. To appreciate the burden of the disease and facilitate the national planning of trachoma control in the integrated control program for the neglected tropical diseases, an epidemiological mapping of trachoma was conducted in the Far North region in 2010-11.A cross-sectional, cluster random sampling survey was carried out. The survey focused on two target populations: children aged 1 to 9 years for the prevalence of active trachoma and those aged 15 and over for the prevalence of trichiasis (TT). The sample frame was an exhaustive list of villages and neighborhoods of Health Districts (HDs). The World Health Organization simplified trachoma grading system was used for the recognition and registration of cases of trachoma.48,844 children aged 1 to 9 years and 41,533 people aged 15 and over were examined. In children aged 1-9 years, the overall prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) was 11.2% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 11.0-11.5%). More girls were affected than boys (p?=?0.003). Thirteen (13) of 27 HDs in the region showed TF prevalence of ?10%. The overall TT prevalence was 1.0% (95% CI: 0.9-1.1%). There were estimated 17193 (95% CI: 12576-25860) TT cases in the region. The prevalence of blindness was 0.04% (95% CI: 0.03-0.07%) and visual impairment was 0.09% (95% CI: 0.07-0.13%). CONCLUSIONSSIGNIFICANCE: The survey confirmed that trachoma is a public health problem in the Far North region with 13 HDs qualified for district-level mass drug administration with azithromycin. It provided a foundation for the national program to plan and implement the SAFE strategy in the region. Effort must be made to find resources to provide the surgical operations to the 17193 TT cases and prevent them from becoming blind. HubMed – drug


Subcutaneous infection model facilitates treatment assessment of secondary alveolar echinococcosis in mice.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013 May; 7(5): e2235
Küster T, Hermann C, Hemphill A, Gottstein B, Spiliotis M

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in humans is a parasitic disease characterized by severe damage to the liver and occasionally other organs. AE is caused by infection with the metacestode (larval) stage of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, usually infecting small rodents as natural intermediate hosts. Conventionally, human AE is chemotherapeutically treated with mebendazole or albendazole. There is, however still the need for improved chemotherapeutical options. Primary in vivo studies on drugs of interest are commonly performed in small laboratory animals such as mice and Mongolian jirds, and in most cases, a secondary infection model is used, whereby E. multilocularis metacestodes are directly injected into the peritoneal cavity or into the liver. Disadvantages of this methodological approach include risk of injury to organs during the inoculation and, most notably, a limitation in the macroscopic (visible) assessment of treatment efficacy. Thus, in order to monitor the efficacy of chemotherapeutical treatment, animals have to be euthanized and the parasite tissue dissected. In the present study, mice were infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes through the subcutaneous route and were then subjected to chemotherapy employing albendazole. Serological responses to infection were comparatively assessed in mice infected by the conventional intraperitoneal route. We demonstrate that the subcutaneous infection model for secondary AE facilitates the assessment of the progress of infection and drug treatment in the live animal. HubMed – drug


Linkage Disequilibrium between Polymorphisms of ABCB1 and ABCC2 to Predict the Treatment Outcome of Malaysians with Complex Partial Seizures on Treatment with Carbamazepine Mono-Therapy at the Kuala Lumpur Hospital.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(5): e64827
Subenthiran S, Abdullah NR, Joseph JP, Muniandy PK, Mok BT, Kee CC, Ismail Z, Mohamed Z

Carbamazepine (CBZ) is used as the first line of treatment of Complex Partial Seizures (CPS) in the Epilepsy Clinic, Neurology Department of Kuala Lumpur Hospital (KLH). More than 30% of the patients remain drug resistant to CBZ mono-therapy. CBZ is transported by the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The P-gp encoded by the ABCB1 and ABCC2 genes are expressed in drug resistant patients with epilepsy. A few studies have shown significant association between CBZ resistant epilepsy and Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) with adjacent polymorphisms of these genes. Our study is aimed at determining the correlation between patients’ response to CBZ mono-therapy to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms G2677T and C3435T of the ABCB1 gene as well as G1249A and -24C>T of the ABCC2 gene.314 patients with CPS were recruited from the Neurology Department of the KLH based on stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria, of whom 152 were responders and the other 162 were non-responders. DNA was extracted from their blood samples and Taqman technology for allelic discrimination was performed. Results were described as genotype frequencies. The SHEsis analysis platform was used to calculate linkage disequilibrium index and infer haplotype frequencies. Haploview was used to do permutation test to obtain a corrected p-value.Resistance to treatment with CBZ mono-therapy was significantly associated with the 2677TT and the 3435TT genotypes while it was not significantly associated with the G1249A and -24C>T polymorphisms. The GCGC haplotype combination of the 2677G>T, 3435C>T, 1249G>A and -24C>T respectively was found to be extremely significant (p?=?1.10e-20) with good drug response to CBZ mono-therapy.Linkage disequilibrium between the 2677G>T, 3435C>T, 1249G>A and -24C>T SNPs may be used as a reliable screening marker to determine the treatment outcome of CBZ mono-therapy with CPS irrespective of race or gender. HubMed – drug



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