Prescription Medication Misuse Among Adolescents With Severe Mental Health Problems in Ontario, Canada.

Prescription Medication Misuse Among Adolescents With Severe Mental Health Problems in Ontario, Canada.

Subst Use Misuse. 2013 Mar 5;
Stewart SL, Baiden P, den Dunnen W

The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of prescription medication misuse among adolescents with severe mental health problems in Ontario, Canada, and to explore some of the factors that influence the misuse of prescription medication. Data were obtained from the Resident Assessment Instrument for Mental Health. A total of 2,677 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years who were admitted into adult mental health beds were analyzed. Logistic regression was used in estimating the likelihood of misusing prescription medication. Overall, 17% of adolescent inpatients misused prescription medication. In the multivariate model, the following were found to be associated with misuse: being female, having multiple psychiatric admissions, education, threat or danger to self, problem with addiction, history of emotional abuse, use of alcohol, past year use of opiates and cannabis, as well as symptoms of depression. Misuse of prescription medication was less likely to occur among adolescents with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and adolescents who were admitted as a result of posing a threat or danger to others. Implications of the findings are discussed with suggestions for future research. HubMed – addiction


Discovery of a Novel Selective Kappa-Opioid Receptor Agonist Using Crystal Structure-Based Virtual Screening.

J Chem Inf Model. 2013 Mar 5;
Negri A, Rives ML, Caspers MJ, Prisinzano TE, Javitch JA, Filizola M

Kappa-opioid (KOP) receptor agonists exhibit analgesic effects without activating reward pathways. In the search for non-addictive opioid therapeutics and novel chemical tools to study physiological functions regulated by the KOP receptor, we screened in silico its recently released inactive crystal structure. A selective novel KOP receptor agonist emerged as a notable result, and is proposed as a new chemotype for the study of the KOP receptor in the etiology of drug addiction, depression, and/or pain. HubMed – addiction


Population drinking and drink driving in Norway and Sweden: an analysis of historical data 1957-89.

Addiction. 2013 Mar 6;
Norström T, Rossow I

AIM: Research suggests an association between population drinking and a large number of outcomes. However, driving while under the influence of alcohol (DWI) is conspicuously absent from this list of outcomes. The aim of this study was to estimate the relation between DWI and total consumption of alcohol on annual time-series data for Norway and Sweden. DESIGN, SETTING, AND MEASUREMENTS: For Norway, we used data on convictions for DWI per 100?000 inhabitants (aged 15-69 years). The DWI proxy for Sweden comprised the proportion (%) of all police-reported traffic accidents with personal injuries where the driver was under the influence of alcohol. Data on total alcohol sales in litres of pure alcohol per inhabitant (aged 15 years and older) were used as proxy for total alcohol consumption. We focused on the period 1957-89, during which the legislation concerning DWI remained unchanged in Norway as well as in Sweden. The statistical analyses were based on co-integrated models. FINDINGS: The estimates of the association between DWI and per capita alcohol consumption were strongly significant in Norway as well as in Sweden. For Norway, the estimated elasticity equalled 2 (P?HubMed – addiction


[A study on clinical features of patients with benzodiazepines use disorder (BZsUD), and characteristics of psychiatric treatments which may cause BZsUD].

Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2012 Dec; 47(6): 317-30
Matsumoto T, Naruse N, Umeno M, Aoyama K, Kobayashi O, Shimane T, Morita N, Wada K

The aims of present study are to clarify the clinical features of patients with benzodiazepine use disorder (BZsUD), and to examine the characteristics of psychiatric treatments which may cause BZsUD.We conducted a medical chart and interview survey to 87 outpatients with benzodiazepine use disorder, who had consecutively visited the four hospitals, specialized in addiction problems, located in metropolitan area, during a month of December, 2011.Consequently, 88.5% of the patients with BZsUD reported to obtain BZs to be abused from general psychiatric clinics, and 83.9% contracted BZsUD in process of general psychiatric treatment. Among the patients who contracted BZsUD in process of psychiatric treatment, 43.8% were speculated to have the other substance-related disorders such as methamphetamine or alcohol-related disorder at start of the psychiatric treatment. Further, approximately 70% of them reported that surplus BZs were prescribed without consideration of storing drugs, and over 40% also reported that BZs were prescribed without a medical examination.The findings of the present study may let us to propose the following four measures to be taken for prevention of BZsUD: First, latent substance-related disorders should not be overlooked, second, short-acting and high-potency BZs should not be prescribed if possible, third, storing and abusing BZs should always be considered, and finally, BZs should be prescribed with a medical examination. HubMed – addiction