Prepulse Inhibition in Psychiatric Disorders – Apart From Schizophrenia.

Prepulse inhibition in psychiatric disorders – Apart from schizophrenia.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Psychiatr Res. 2012 Dec 31;
Kohl S, Heekeren K, Klosterkötter J, Kuhn J

Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a robust operational measure of sensorimotor gating. In schizophrenic patients PPI is deficient. The aim of our review was to investigate the state of science regarding PPI and psychiatric disorders aside from schizophrenia. We used the online database PubMed in order to search for original published reports on PPI studies. The terms “prepulse inhibition”, “sensorimotor gating”, “blink recovery”, and “blink reflex excitability” have been combined with the names of psychiatric disorders. We found that PPI is deficient in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome (GTS). In bipolar disorder dysfunctional PPI seems to be rather state dependent. Studies on depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) consistently report no alterations. Evidence regarding sensorimotor gating in anxiety, autism, fragile X syndrome, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance disorders, and Huntington’s disease is still poor. There is a strong need for further studies on PPI in psychiatric disorders. PPI is highly applicable for translational research and might also be a very useful tool to investigate the mode of action of innovative, neuro-modulative techniques. Future PPI studies should control for influencing variables such as smoking, sex, or medication.
HubMed – depression

 

Acute antidepressant effects of right unilateral ultra-brief ECT: A double-blind randomised controlled trial.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Affect Disord. 2012 Dec 31;
Mayur P, Byth K, Harris A

BACKGROUND: Shortening the pulse width to 0.3ms holds neurophysiological and clinical promise of making ECT safer by limiting cognitive side effects. However, the antidepressant effects of right ultra-brief unilateral ECT are under contention. In an acute ECT course, antidepressant equivalence of ultra-brief right unilateral ECT to the high-dose brief pulse right unilateral ECT was investigated. METHODS: Severely depressed patients were randomised to 1ms-brief pulse (n=18) or 0.3ms ultra-brief pulse (n=17) right unilateral ECT, both at high-dose (6 times threshold stimulus dose) given thrice weekly. Depression severity was measured using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale at baseline, after 8 treatments and after the acute course of ECT. RESULTS: Depression severity declined equally in both groups: F (1.27,41.97)=0.31, p=0.63. Median time in days to remission (95%CI) was in brief pulse ECT: 26 (18.6-33.4) and ultra-brief pulse ECT:28 (17.9-38.0). LIMITATION: The small sample study in the study increases the likelihood of type 2 error. CONCLUSION: In severe depression, high-dose ultra-brief right unilateral ECT appears to show matching acute antidepressant response to an equally high-dose brief pulse right unilateral ECT.
HubMed – depression

 

Psychopathological chronic sequelae of the 2009 earthquake in L’Aquila, Italy.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Affect Disord. 2012 Dec 31;
Gigantesco A, Mirante N, Granchelli C, Diodati G, Cofini V, Mancini C, Carbonelli A, Tarolla E, Minardi V, Salmaso S, D’Argenio P

BACKGROUND: To date, there are no data available among the general adult population on the long-term psychological sequelae of the earthquake that occurred in the town of L’Aquila, Italy in 2009. We investigated the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression (MD) and identified risk factors for these disorders among adult survivors more than one year after the earthquake. METHODS: Telephone interviews were conducted among a random sample of 957 resident adults. The interviews were performed using a questionnaire on exposure to the earthquake, the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for PTSD, and the Patient Health Questionnaire 8 for MD. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess potential risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of PTSD and MD were 4.1% (95% CI=3.0-5.5) and 5.8% (95% CI=4.5-7.5), respectively. The risk factors for PTSD were economic difficulties not necessarily related to the earthquake, chronic disease, death of a relative or friend, and serious economic difficulties as consequence of the earthquake, whereas those for MD were female gender, economic difficulties not necessarily related to the earthquake, not having a permanent job and living in L’Aquila. LIMITATIONS: The major limitations were the cross sectional design and the uncertain accuracy of the diagnoses compared with clinical diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological symptoms are frequent even 14-19 months after the L’Aquila earthquake. The mental health care providers in the area of L’Aquila should be aware of the possibility of PTSD or MD among their users.
HubMed – depression

 


 

Sanjeevani-Depression Treatment Special (04/01/2013) – Feeling down from time to time is a normal part of life. But when emptiness and despair take hold and won’t go away, it may be depression. More than just the temporary “blues,” the lows of depression make it tough to function and enjoy life.Depression can make you feel helpless, hopeless, or empty and numb; but there’s a lot you can do to change how you feel. With help and support, you can overcome depression and get your life back.

 

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