Predicting Self-Initiated Marijuana Use Cessation Among Youth at Continuation High Schools.

Predicting Self-Initiated Marijuana Use Cessation among Youth at Continuation High Schools.

Front Psychiatry. 2013; 4: 69
Little MA, Spruijt-Metz D, Pokhrel P, Sun P, Rohrbach LA, Sussman S

The current article reports a large scale study of the prediction of marijuana use cessation among individuals attending alternative high schools who were regular users at baseline. Based on the Triadic Influence Theory, predictors of marijuana use cessation at 1-year follow-up were organized by type of influence (e.g., interpersonal, cultural and attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and level of influence (e.g., distal and ultimate). Among the 522 students who were past 30-day marijuana users at baseline, quitting was defined as having not used marijuana in the last 30?days at 1-year follow-up (43% of baseline users). To account for the level of influence we employed a theory-based analytic strategy, hierarchical regression. In the final multivariate model, lower level of baseline marijuana use and less of a likelihood to endorse pro-drug-use myths remained predictors of marijuana use cessation 1-year later. Implications of these findings include the need to develop cessation programs that reduce psychological dependence on marijuana use, and correct cognitive misperceptions about drug use in order to help adolescents make decisions that lead to health-promoting behaviors. HubMed – drug

Traditional medicines and globalization: current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology.

Front Pharmacol. 2013; 4: 92
Leonti M, Casu L

The ethnopharmacological approach toward the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to aging related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in “traditional” medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend toward the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems. Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of “foreign” medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective. HubMed – drug

Acute porphyria presenting as epilepsia partialis continua.

Case Rep Neurol. 2013 May; 5(2): 116-24
Tran TP, Leduc K, Savard M, Dupré N, Rivest D, Nguyen DK

The porphyrias are a defect in the biosynthesis of heme which can be associated with different neurological symptoms during acute attacks such as peripheral neuropathy, mental disturbance and seizures. So far, there have only been a few case reports of status epilepticus, none of which were of epilepsia partialis continua (EPC). We present here two cases of hereditary coproporphyria (HCP) manifesting EPC as part of the clinical presentation.The patients’ medical charts, EEG and imaging studies were carefully reviewed.Case 1 is a 49-year-old male who first presented a tonic-clonic seizure. Case 2 is a 30-year-old male who came to the emergency room for a convulsive status epilepticus. Both evolved to EPC over the next days. EPC persisted despite several antiepileptic drug trials. Diagnosis of HCP was confirmed by a high level of urine, fecal and serum porphyrins in both cases and by genetic testing in one. Over the last 3 years, the first patient has continued to present non-disabling EPC and has had four tonic-clonic seizures associated with alcohol consumption. The second patient died from brain edema one month and half after admission.Acute porphyrias should be included in the differential diagnosis of new onset status epilepticus, including EPC. Their recognition is important as it modifies significantly patient management, since many anticonvulsants are porphyrogenic. HubMed – drug

Treatment with ipilimumab: a case report of complete response in a metastatic malignant melanoma patient.

Case Rep Oncol. 2013 May; 6(2): 285-8
Addeo A, Rinaldi CR

Over the past year, 3 agents have been approved for the treatment of melanoma by the Food and Drug Administration. These include pegylated interferon ?-2b for stage III melanoma, vemurafenib for unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab for unresectable or metastatic melanoma.We present here the case of a 65-year-old Caucasian male diagnosed with advanced melanoma in April 2011 and treated with ipilimumab (Yervoy(®)), a monoclonal antibody targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), as second-line treatment after progression with dacarbazine, for (wild-type BRAF) metastatic melanoma. The patient was referred to us for several painful lumps on his right arm. A biopsy of one of them revealed melanoma. CT and PET scans did not show any other lesions or a primary site. The patient was started on first-line chemotherapy with dacarbazine 850 mg/m(2) on day 1, every 3 weeks. After 3 cycles, the patient showed disease progression with an increase in size of the skin metastasis. Second-line treatment was started with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg on day 1, every 3 weeks. At the end of the treatment, after 4 cycles, we documented a complete clinical response with total resolution of the skin metastasis. At the time of writing this paper, our patient had finished his treatment more than 9 months earlier and is still in complete remission.This is a paradigmatic case where, despite extensive metastatic disease, treatment with ipilimumab has confirmed its efficacy. It is still an open question why only a minority of patients have such a remarkable response, and further trials are warranted to address this important question. HubMed – drug