Polypharmacy in Psychiatry: A Review.

Polypharmacy in psychiatry: a review.

Mens Sana Monogr. 2013 Jan; 11(1): 82-99
Kukreja S, Kalra G, Shah N, Shrivastava A

Psychiatric polypharmacy refers to the prescription of two or more psychiatric medications concurrently to a patient. It can be categorised as same-class, multi-class, adjunctive, augmentation and total polypharmacy. Despite advances in psychopharmacology and a better understanding of the principles of therapeutics, its practice is increasing rapidly. The prevalence of polypharmacy in psychiatry varies between 13%-90%. There are various clinical and pharmaco-economic factors associated with it. Dealing with polypharmacy requires an understanding of its associated factors. Education, guidelines and algorithms for the appropriate management of various conditions are effective ways to avoid irrational polypharmacy. HubMed – drug


Improving the Design of a MscL-Based Triggered Nanovalve.

Biosens Bioelectron. 2013; 3(1): 171-184
Iscla I, Eaton C, Parker J, Wray R, Kovács Z, Blount P

The mechanosensitive channel of large conductance, MscL, has been proposed as a triggered nanovalve to be used in drug release and other nanodevices. It is a small homopentameric bacterial protein that has the largest gated pore known: greater than 30 Å. Large molecules, even small proteins can be released through MscL. Although MscL normally gates in response to membrane tension, early studies found that hydrophilic or charged residue substitutions near the constriction of the channel leads to pore opening. Researchers have successfully changed the modality of MscL to open to stimuli such as light by chemically modifying a single residue, G22, within the MscL pore. Here, by utilizing in vivo, liposome efflux, and patch clamp assays we compared modification of G22 with that of another neighboring residue, G26, and demonstrate that modifying G26 may be a better choice for triggered nanovalves used for triggered vesicular release of compounds. HubMed – drug


Primary cardiac angiosarcoma in a 25-year-old man: excision, adjuvant chemotherapy, and multikinase inhibitor therapy.

Tex Heart Inst J. 2013; 40(2): 186-8
Bellitti R, Buonocore M, De Rosa N, Covino FE, Casale B, Santè P

Primary cardiac tumors do not occur frequently, and only one quarter of them, chiefly sarcomas, are malignant. Patients with angiosarcoma typically have a shorter survival time than do patients with other sarcomas, and the prognosis for survival depends strictly on the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis and the possibility of complete surgical excision. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy have well-established postoperative roles because of the high probability of metastasis. We report the case of a 25-year-old man who presented with pericardial effusion and echocardiographic evidence of an intracavitary right atrial mass but without the bulky, infiltrative growth typical of this location of the disease. Malignancy was suggested by the clinical presentation, the location of the mass in the right side of the heart, and the absence of conditions favoring thrombus formation. After complete surgical excision, the mass was confirmed to be an angiosarcoma. Conventional adjuvant chemotherapy and maintenance therapy with inhibitors of CD117 (c-kit) and vascular endothelial growth factor relieved the patient’s clinical symptoms and enabled his long-term, disease-free survival. In addition to reporting this case, we discuss aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of angiosarcoma. HubMed – drug


Simvastatin Activates the PPAR?-Dependent Pathway to Prevent Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Associated with Inhibition of RhoA Signaling.

Tex Heart Inst J. 2013; 40(2): 140-7
Zou C, Qi H, Liu ZH, Han L, Zhao C, Yang X

Left ventricular hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for major adverse cardiovascular events. Statins have positive effects on this condition; however, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. In this study, we examined whether the effect of simvastatin on left ventricular hypertrophy can be mediated with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?-dependent pathway in rabbits with nonischemic heart failure (HF). We induced aortic insufficiency and constriction in 48 rabbits and divided them equally into control, HF, and HF with simvastatin therapy (HF-SIM) groups. The HF-SIM group was given 10 mg/kg/d of simvastatin. We echocardiographically measured baseline and 8-week cardiac structure and function, and we used Western blot, polymerase chain reaction, and electrophoretic analytic techniques to evaluate messenger RNA expression and protein expression and activity. In comparison with the HF group, the HF-SIM rabbits had an increased ejection fraction and decreased left ventricular mass index, interventricular septal thickness, ventricular posterior-wall thickness, and collagen volume fraction. Moreover, the messenger RNA and protein expression of PPAR? in the HF-SIM rabbits were significantly higher than those in the HF rabbits; and the activity and expression of nuclear factor-?B subunit p65, RhoA, and Rho GTPase were significantly lower. Our results indicate that simvastatin therapy attenuates the PPAR?-dependent pathway in association with the inhibition of RhoA and Rho GTPase signaling to inhibit nuclear factor-?B activation, thus preventing the development of left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis in rabbits with nonischemic heart failure. HubMed – drug