Pneumocystis Jirovecii Colonization in Non-HIV-Infected Patients Based on Nested-PCR Detection in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples.

Pneumocystis jirovecii Colonization in Non-HIV-Infected Patients Based on Nested-PCR Detection in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples.

Iran J Public Health. 2013; 42(3): 298-305
Khodadadi H, Mirhendi H, Mohebali M, Kordbacheh P, Zarrinfar H, Makimura K

Pneumocystis jirovecii causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised patients with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Colonization with this fungus may stimulate pulmonary inflammation or lead to PCP in susceptible patients. The epidemiology of this infection and routs of its transmission has poorly studied in Iran. We examined Pneumosystis colonization in patients with various lung underlying diseases.Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids of 458 patients with different underlying diseases or pulmonary signs were collected between August 2010 and January 2012. Patients were divided into four groups: transplant recipients, malignant patients, immunosuppressive drug recipients and patients with other different lung diseases. A sensitive nested-PCR method targeted 18S ribosomal RNA gene was used for investigating P. jirovecii in the specimens.P. jirovecii DNA was detected in 57 out of 458 (12.5%) BAL samples by nested-PCR. Colonization rate in malignant patients, transplant recipients, immunosuppressive therapy recipients and patients with other various lung diseases was 21.7%, 20.3%, 12.7% and 7.3%, respectively. The enzyme BanI cuts all PCR products producing fragments with the size of 228 and 104 base pair. This finding as well as sequencing of four random positive samples validated and reconfirmed the PCR results. P. jirovecii cysts were found in 5 out of 57 PCR positive samples.A significant number of patients with pulmonary diseases were colonized by P. jirovecii that can develop to PCP in these patients or they may transmit the fungus to other susceptible patients. HubMed – drug


The importance of family relations for cannabis users: the case of serbian adolescents.

Iran J Public Health. 2013; 42(3): 249-60
Terzic Supic Z, Santric Milicevic M, Sbutega I, Vasic V

Adolescence is transitional stage of physical and mental human development occuring between childhood and adult life. Social interactions and environmental factors together are important predictors of adolescent cannabis use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the social determinants and adolescents behavior with cannabis consumption.A cross sectional study as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs was conducted among 6.150 adolescents aged 16 years in three regions of Serbia, and three types of schools (gymnasium, vocational – professional, and vocational – handicraft) during May – June 2008. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to obtain adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals in which the dependent variable was cannabis consumption non-user and user.Among 6.7% of adolescents who had tried cannabis at least one in their lives, boys were more involved in cannabis use than girls, especially boys from gymnasium school. Well off family, lower education of mother, worse relations with parents were significantly associated with cannabis use (P < 0.05). Behaviors like skipping from schools, frequent evening outs, and playing on slot machines were also related to cannabis use (P < 0.05).The study confirmed the importance of family relationship development. Drug use preventive programmes should include building interpersonal trust in a family lifecycle and school culture. HubMed – drug


Efficacy and safety of biphasic insulin aspart 30/70 in type 2 diabetes suboptimally controlled on oral antidiabetic therapy in Korea: a multicenter, open-label, single-arm study.

Diabetes Metab J. 2013 Apr; 37(2): 117-24
Song KH, Kim JM, Noh JH, Park Y, Son HS, Min KW, Ko KS

The purpose of this study was to evaluate change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), side effects, and quality of life (QOL) after a 16-week treatment period with Biphasic insulin aspart 30/70 (BIasp30) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who had been suboptimally controlled with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs).The study consisted of a 4-week titration period when concurrent OAD(s) were replaced with BIasp30 and followed by a 12-week maintenance period. All patients completed the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire at the beginning and the end of the trial. Hypoglycemic episodes were recorded by the patient throughout the trial.Sixty patients were included, of whom 55 patients (92%) completed the full 16-week treatment period. Seven-point blood glucose was significantly improved as compared with the baseline, except for the postlunch blood glucose level. HbA1c at the end of period was significantly improved from 9.2% to 8.2% (P<0.001). Eleven percent (n=6) of patients achieved HbA1c values ?6.5% and 22% (n=12) of patients achieved <7.0%. There were 3.4 episodes/patients-year of minor hypoglycemia and 0.05 episodes/patients-year of major hypoglycemia. QOL showed significant changes only in the acceptability of high blood glucose category (P=0.003).Treatment with once or twice daily BIasp30 may be an option for the patients with T2DM suboptimally controlled with OADs in Korea. However, considering the low number of patients achieving the HbA1c target and the high postlunch blood glucose levels, additional management with another modality may be required for optimal control. HubMed – drug


Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of new Ibuprofen polymeric prodrugs based on 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate.

Sci Pharm. 2013 Mar; 81(1): 281-96
Babazadeh M, Sheidaei M, Abbaspour S, Edjlali L

The present research work describes the synthesis and evaluation of new acrylic-type polymeric systems having degradable ester bonds linked to ibuprofen as materials for drug delivery. Ibuprofen was linked to 2-hydroxy-propyl methacrylate by an activated ester methodology in a one-pot procedure with a high yield. The resulting material was copolymerized with either 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate or methyl methacrylate (in 1:3 mole ratios) by the free radical polymerization method, utilizing azoisobutyronitrile at 65-70 °C. The characterization of the resulting products by FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DSC, and elemental analysis confirmed their synthesis successfully. Ibuprofen release from the obtained polymers was preliminarily evaluated at different buffered solutions (pH 1, 7.4, and 10) into dialysis bags to show the capacity of prodrugs to release the drug under hydrolytic conditions. Detection of hydrolysis by UV spectroscopy at selected intervals showed that the drug can be released by selective hydrolysis of the ester bond at the side of the drug moiety. The release profiles indicated that the hydrolytic behavior of polymers is strongly based on the polymer hydrophilicity and the pH value of the hydrolysis solution. The results suggest that these polymers could be useful in controlled release systems. HubMed – drug