Plasma Pharmacochemistry Combined With Microdialysis to Screen Potential Bioactive Components and Their Metabolites in Anemarrhena Asphodeloides Saponin Extract Using Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography/quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

Plasma pharmacochemistry combined with microdialysis to screen potential bioactive components and their metabolites in Anemarrhena asphodeloides saponin extract using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

J Sep Sci. 2013 Mar 6;
Liu Z, Liu M, Qi Y, Zhu Z, Chai Y, Yuan C, Lin Y

Although various techniques have been employed to analyze drug metabolites, the metabolism of multi-component herbal medicine has seldom been fully addressed. In contrast to chemical drugs, a number of compounds in herbal medicine could get into circulation and then be metabolized. Metabolism study on active constituents in herbal medicine is a good way for us to explain and predict a variety of events related to the efficacy and toxicity of herbal medicine. The present work aims to elucidate the multi-component metabolic characteristics of a herbal medicine by the combination of plasma pharmacochemistry and microdialysis sampling. Anemarrhena asphodeloides, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, was chosen as a model. After oral administration of A. asphodeloides saponin extract to rats, microdialysis samples were collected continuously in the jugular vein and analyzed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The identification of compounds in bio-samples was achieved by accurate mass measurement and detailed fragmentation pathway analysis. The results showed that unbound constituents in blood circulation of the rat included seven parent saponins and six metabolites, which might be the potential active components in vivo. Among which, three metabolites have not been previously reported and were identified in this study. It is the first report on systemic metabolism of total saponins of A. asphodeloides in mammalian plasma. HubMed – drug


In non-obese patients, duration of action of rocuronium is directly correlated with body mass index.

Can J Anaesth. 2013 Mar 6;
Fujimoto M, Tanahira C, Nishi M, Yamamoto T

BACKGROUND: Administration of neuromuscular blocking agents using a dose calculated on actual body weight carries a risk of prolonged duration of action in obese patients whose body mass index (BMI) is > 30 kg·m-2. In the present study, we hypothesized that there could be a correlation between BMI and the duration of action of rocuronium administered according to actual body weight in non-obese patients, in particular, overweight (BMI 25-30 kg·m-2) and underweight patients (BMI < 18.5 kg·m-2). METHODS: Sixteen female patients (BMI 15-30 kg·m-2, aged 45-60 yr) scheduled for elective surgery under total intravenous anesthesia were included in this study. Rocuronium 0.9 mg·kg-1 was administered, and adductor pollicis train-of-four responses following ulnar nerve stimulation were monitored every minute with acceleromyography. The times from the injection of rocuronium until spontaneous recovery of first twitch to 5% (5% Duration) and 25% (25% Duration) of baseline were measured, and the correlation with BMI was analyzed. RESULTS: A significant correlation between 5% Duration and BMI (r2 = 0.56; P < 0.001) was found by linear regression analysis. A significant correlation was also found between 25% Duration and BMI (r2 = 0.49; P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: In adult female patients with a BMI in the range of 15-30 kg·m-2, the duration of action of rocuronium increases with BMI when the drug is administered on the basis of mg per actual kg body weight. HubMed – drug


Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in the era of personalized medicine.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2013 Mar 6;
Féliz LR, Tsimberidou AM

PURPOSE: To review the role of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapies in the personalized medicine era. METHODS: We searched PubMed for prospective clinical trials published through October 2012 of anti-VEGF agents approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or the European Medicines Agency. RESULTS: The use of anti-VEGF drugs as single agents or in combination with other targeted or cytotoxic agents was associated with improved response rates and progression-free survival. Anti-VEGF therapy exerts its action by blocking tumor vessel formation and, thus, proliferation. Some investigators demonstrated modest to no improvement in overall survival, although the maintenance of anti-VEGF therapy beyond progression was shown to result in longer overall survival. The use of anti-VEGF therapy was associated with adverse events (i.e., thromboembolism, hemorrhage, myocardial infarction, and hypertension) and transformation to a more invasive phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The development of multikinase targeting agents that include anti-VEGF properties warrants further investigation. The role of anti-VEGF therapy is evolving in the era of personalized medicine, and its use needs to be reassessed in tumor types with effective FDA-approved targeted agents, especially in light of its relatively high cost. HubMed – drug