Plain Cigarette Packets Could Reduce Nicotine Addiction.

Plain cigarette packets could reduce nicotine addiction.

BMJ. 2013; 346: f3105
Brewer C

HubMed – addiction


17?-Estradiol is necessary for extinction of cocaine seeking in female rats.

Learn Mem. 2013; 20(6): 300-6
Twining RC, Tuscher JJ, Doncheck EM, Frick KM, Mueller D

Human and preclinical models of addiction demonstrate that gonadal hormones modulate acquisition of drug seeking. Little is known, however, about the effects of these hormones on extinction of drug-seeking behavior. Here, we investigated how 17?-estradiol (E2) affects expression and extinction of cocaine seeking in female rats. Using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, ovariectomized rats were maintained throughout conditioning with 2 d of E2 treatment followed by 2 d of vehicle treatment, or were injected with E2 daily. Hormone injections were paired or explicitly unpaired with place conditioning sessions. Expression of a cocaine CPP was of equal magnitude regardless of conditioning protocol, suggesting that E2 levels during conditioning did not affect subsequent CPP expression. During extinction, daily E2 administration initially enhanced expression of the cocaine CPP, but resulted in significantly faster extinction compared to controls. Whereas E2-treated rats were extinguished within 8 d, vehicle-treated rats maintained CPP expression for more than a month, indicative of perseveration. To determine whether E2 could rescue extinction in these rats, half were given daily E2 treatment and half were given vehicle. E2-treated rats showed rapid extinction, whereas vehicle-treated rats continued to perseverate. These data demonstrate for the first time that E2 is necessary for extinction of cocaine seeking in female rats, and that it promotes rapid extinction when administered daily. Clinically, these findings suggest that monitoring and maintaining optimal E2 levels during exposure therapy would facilitate therapeutic interventions for female cocaine addicts. HubMed – addiction


Quantitative damage-benefit evaluation of drug effects: major discrepancies between the general population, users and experts.

J Psychopharmacol. 2013 May 15;
Reynaud M, Luquiens A, Aubin HJ, Talon C, Bourgain C

Aims:This study sought to quantify the perceptions of damage and benefit, for users and society, associated with five addictive substances (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine and heroin) and one addictive behavior (gambling), in a large sample representative of the French population. We compared with expert assessments and investigated the effects of substance consumption on these perceptions.Findings:The ranking of substances by the lay public is very divergent from that of experts. The public overestimates damage to users and to society and underestimates the benefit, in comparison with experts, for all substances. Alcohol is the only exception, with damage and benefit perceptions similar to those of experts. Heroin and cocaine are perceived as the two most dangerous substances. The damage of cannabis and alcohol are judged to be equivalent. The three legal substances are associated with the highest overall benefit, although cannabis has the highest perceived benefit for users. Substances with the highest perceived benefit tend to be associated with perception of lower levels of damage. Individuals with an history of substance use have a perception of the damage and the benefit for that substance which is more congruent with experts, including a similar ranking of substances.Conclusions:Prevention campaigns focused on perceptions of damage alone have reached their limits. The perception of benefit should be taken into account in early interventions with illegal substance users. HubMed – addiction


Sharing stories: Indigenous alcohol and other drug workers’ well-being, stress and burnout.

Drug Alcohol Rev. 2013 May 15;
Roche AM, Duraisingam V, Trifonoff A, Battams S, Freeman T, Tovell A, Weetra D, Bates N

BACKGROUND: Indigenous alcohol and other drug (AOD) workers’ roles are often exhausting, poorly paid and under-recognised. There has been relatively little examination of work-related stressors on their health and well-being. This national study identified Indigenous AOD workers’ experiences and perspectives on well-being, stress and burnout along with strategies to improve worker well-being. METHODS.: Focus groups were conducted with 121 participants (70 Indigenous, 20 non-Indigenous, 31 unspecified) from metropolitan, rural and remote locations around Australia, selected via a purposive sampling strategy. Audio files and interview notes were analysed to identify key themes. RESULTS: Main themes identified included excessive workloads, extensive demands and expectations, workers’ proximity to communities, loss and grief issues, lack of recognition, inadequate rewards, stigma and racism, and Indigenous ways of working. Stressors were compounded by workers’ complex personal circumstances, profound levels of loss and grief, and lack of culturally safe working environments. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Indigenous workers’ stress was exacerbated by close links and responsibilities to their communities and a ‘dual accountability’, being constantly on call, playing multiple roles, complex personal and professional lives, and needing to interact with multiple agencies. Many Indigenous AOD workers had developed mechanisms to deal with work-related pressures and received valued support from their communities. The study identified the importance of workforce strategies to improve Indigenous workers’ well-being and reduce stress, including: mutual support networks, training in assertiveness and boundary setting, workloads that take account of Indigenous ways of working, adequate remuneration, supervision and mentorship, and cultural sensitivity training for non-Indigenous workers. [Roche AM, Duraisingam V, Trifonoff A, Battams S, Freeman T, Tovell A, Weetra D, Bates N. Sharing stories: Indigenous alcohol and other drug workers’ well-being, stress and burnout. Drug Alcohol Rev 2013]. HubMed – addiction



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