Phenomenology and Treatment of Behavioural Addictions.

Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.

Can J Psychiatry. 2013 May; 58(5): 252-9
Grant JE, Schreiber LR, Odlaug BL

Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made. HubMed – addiction


Behavioral endophenotypes of drug addiction: etiological insights from neuroimaging studies.

Neuropharmacology. 2013 Jun 8;
Jupp B, Dalley JW

This article reviews recent advances in the elucidation of neurobehavioral endophenotypes associated with drug addiction made possible by the translational neuroimaging techniques magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Increasingly, these non-invasive imaging approaches have been the catalyst for advancing our understanding of the etiology of drug addiction as a brain disorder involving complex interactions between pre-disposing behavioral traits, environmental influences and neural perturbations arising from the chronic abuse of licit and illicit drugs. In this article we discuss the causal role of trait markers associated with impulsivity and novelty-/sensation-seeking in speeding the development of compulsive drug administration and in facilitating relapse. We also discuss the striking convergence of imaging findings from these behavioural traits and addiction in rats, monkeys and humans with a focus on biomarkers of dopamine neurotransmission, and highlight areas where further research is needed to disambiguate underlying causal mechanisms. HubMed – addiction


Frontotemporal hypoactivity during a reality monitoring paradigm is associated with delusions in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

Cogn Neuropsychiatry. 2013 Jun 11;
Thoresen C, Endestad T, Sigvartsen NP, Server A, Bolstad I, Johansson M, Andreassen OA, Jensen J

Introduction. Impaired monitoring of internally generated information has been proposed to be one component in the development and maintenance of delusions. The present study investigated the neural correlates underlying the monitoring processes and whether they were associated with delusions. Methods. Twenty healthy controls and 19 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were administrated a reality monitoring paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging. During encoding participants were instructed to associate a statement with either a presented (viewed condition) or an imagined picture (imagined condition). During the monitoring session in the scanner, participants were presented with old and new statements and their task was to identify whether a given statement was associated with the viewed condition, imagined condition, or if it was new. Results. Patients showed significantly reduced accuracy in the imagined condition with performance negatively associated with degree of delusions. This was accompanied with reduced activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus in the patient group. The severity of delusions was negatively correlated with the blood-oxygenation-level dependent response in the left hippocampus. Conclusions. The results suggest that weakened monitoring is associated with delusions in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, and that this may be mediated by a frontotemporal dysfunction. HubMed – addiction


Access to treatment for substance-using women in the Republic of Georgia: Socio-cultural and structural barriers.

Int J Drug Policy. 2013 Jun 4;
Otiashvili D, Kirtadze I, O’Grady KE, Zule W, Krupitsky E, Wechsberg WM, Jones HE

BACKGROUND: In the Republic of Georgia, women comprise under 2% of patients in substance use treatment and to date there has been no empirical research to investigate what factors may facilitate or hinder their help-seeking behaviour or access to treatment services. METHODS: This study included secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with 55 substance-using women and 34 providers of health-related services. RESULTS: The roles and norms of women in Georgian society were identified as major factors influencing their help-seeking behaviour. Factors that had a negative impact on use of drug treatment services included an absence of gender-specific services, judgmental attitudes of service providers, the cost of treatment and a punitive legal position in regard to substance use. Having a substance-using partner served as an additional factor inhibiting a woman’s willingness to seek assistance. CONCLUSION: Within the context of orthodox Georgian society, low self-esteem, combined with severe family and social stigma play a critical role in creating barriers to the use of both general health and substance-use-treatment services for women. Education of the public, including policy makers and health care providers is urgently needed to focus on addiction as a treatable medical illness. The need for more women centred services is also critical to the provision of effective treatment for substance-using women. HubMed – addiction



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