Phenibut Dependence.

Phenibut dependence.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

BMJ Case Rep. 2013; 2013:
Samokhvalov AV, Paton-Gay CL, Balchand K, Rehm J

Phenibut is a ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist designed and used as an anxiolytic in Russia. In Western countries, phenibut is not a registered medication but is available through online stores as a supplement. We present a case of a patient who used phenibut to self-medicate anxiety, insomnia and cravings for alcohol. While phenibut was helpful initially, the patient developed dependence including tolerance, significant withdrawal symptoms within 3-4 h of last use and failure to fulfil his roles at work and at home. He finally sought medical assistance in our addictions clinic. We have gradually, over the course of 9 weeks, substituted phenibut with baclofen, which has similar pharmacological properties, and then successfully tapered the patient off baclofen. This required approximately 10 mg of baclofen for each gram of phenibut.
HubMed – addiction


Role of music in morphine rewarding effects in mice using conditioned place preference method.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2012 Dec 1; 33(7):
Tavakoli F, Hoseini SE, Mokhtari M, Vahdati A, Razmi N, Vessal M

OBJECTIVES: This research aims at studying the neuroendocrine effects of music on creating morphine dependence in mice using conditioned place preference (CPP). Methods: The mice treated with 10 mg/kg morphine subcutaneously, fast music and slow music. Morphine was used to create dependence. In order to recognize the morphine rewarding effects, CPP technique was used. In the conditioning stage that lasted for 8 days, different groups of mice, after receiving the treatment were randomly placed in compartment for 30 minutes. The post-conditioning stage included the fourth day, the ninth day, the 12th day and the 16th day. Results: Comparing place preference between morphine group and the control group, a significant increase (p<0.05) was observed in the place preference of morphine group, while a significant decrease (p<0.05) was demonstrated in the place preferences of morphine + taxi girl music group compared with morphine group alone. In addition morphine + alone in the rain music group demonstrated a significantly increased conditioned place preference (p<0.05) compared with the morphine group. Conclusions: Alone in the rain music acts as a positive pleasant emotion increasing the dopaminergic activity in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) and Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) and through associated learning mechanisms of reward-related behavior increases morphine addiction. However, taxi girl music may act as unpleasant experiences producing negative emotions and reducing morphine addiction. HubMed – addiction


A cluster randomized trial on the effects of a parent and student intervention on alcohol use in adolescents four years after baseline; no evidence of catching-up behavior.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Addict Behav. 2012 Dec 23; 38(4): 2032-2039
Koning IM, van den Eijnden RJ, Verdurmen JE, Engels RC, Vollebergh WA

OBJECTIVE: It is questioned whether the alcohol prevention program “Prevention of Alcohol use in Students” (PAS) is effective in reducing the prevalence of heavy weekend drinking and the amount of drinking among adolescents at the age at which they are allowed to buy alcohol in The Netherlands (16years). In addition, it is questioned whether the intervention effects are attributed to a delay in onset earlier in adolescence or to the development of skills due to the PAS intervention (mediation analyses). DESIGN: A cluster randomized trial including 3490 Dutch early adolescents (M age=12.66, SD=0.49) and their parents randomized over four conditions; 1) parent intervention, 2) student intervention, 3) combined intervention and 4) control group. OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcome measures were prevalence of heavy drinking and amount of weekend drinking measured at age 16, 50months after baseline. RESULTS: Only when parents and students were targeted simultaneously could the prevalence of heavy weekend drinking (b=-.44, p=.02) and the amount of alcohol use (b=-.24, p=.02) be reduced. No significant effects of the separate parent and student interventions were found. The effect of the combined PAS intervention on heavy weekend drinking and amount of drinking can be attributed to respectively the increase in self-control and strict parenting, and a delayed alcohol initiation earlier in adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: The current study confirms the effectiveness of the combined PAS intervention up to the legal drinking age of 16. The results underline that postponing the onset of drinking among early adolescents is not only crucial for health development in the short term, but also impacts the development of a healthier drinking pattern later on.
HubMed – addiction



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