Pharmacokinetics Study of Recombinant Hirudin in the Plasma of Rats Using Chromogenic Substrate, ELISA, and Radioisotope Assays.

Pharmacokinetics study of recombinant hirudin in the plasma of rats using chromogenic substrate, ELISA, and radioisotope assays.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(6): e64336
Jiang SY, Jiao J, Zhang TT, Xu YP

To compare the analytical methods used to study the pharmacokinetics of recombinant hirudin in the plasma of rats that had been injected with (125)I-recombinant hirudin.2.0 mg/kg (125)I-recombinant hirudin were injected intravenously into rats. The recombinant hirudins in the plasma was analyzed by chromogenic substrate assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), total radioisotope assay (RA) and trichloroacetic acid pre-treated total radioisotope assay (TCA-RA).The chromogenic substrate assay standard curve was linear over the concentration range from 3.12 to 40.00 ng/ml for the recombinant hirudin in plasma. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for the intra- and inter-day variation were 5.0 to 6.3% and 11.9 to 12.6%, respectively. The recoveries of recombinant hirudin was 89.8% to 100.7%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 3.12 ng/ml. The concentration-time curve of the recombinant hirudin in the plasma could be explained as a two-compartment model. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including the half-life of distribution phase (t1/2 ?), the half-life of elimination phase (t1/2 ?), volume of apparent distribution (Vd), and area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinite time (AUC0-t) were 7.59 min, 46.99 min, 0.17 L/kg, and 204.5 mg/L/min, respectively, as determined by chromogenic substrate assay; 6.41 min, 47.28 min, 1.24 L/kg, and 575.18 mg/L/min, respectively, as determined by ELISA; 3.69 min, 701.90 min, 0.04 L/kg, and 4189 mg/L/min, respectively as determined by RA; and 4.57 min, 724.9 min, 0.09 L/kg, and 2329 mg/L/min, respectively, as determined by TCA-RA.The chromogenic substrate assay on the concentration dynamics of the recombinant hirudin in the plasma is a specific, sensitive, and accurate analytical method for pharmacokinetic studies. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic parameters determined by the chromogenic substrate assay and ELISA are congruent except for AUC. HubMed – drug


Presence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic Escherichia coli in the San Pedro River located in the State of Aguascalientes, Mexico.

Front Microbiol. 2013; 4: 147
Ramírez Castillo FY, Avelar González FJ, Garneau P, Márquez Díaz F, Guerrero Barrera AL, Harel J

Contamination of surface waters in developing countries is a great concern. Treated and untreated wastewaters have been discharged into rivers and streams, leading to possible waterborne infection outbreaks and may represent a significant dissemination mechanism of antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, the water quality of San Pedro River, the main river and pluvial collector of the Aguascalientes State, Mexico was assessed. Thirty sample locations were tested throughout the River. The main physicochemical parameters of water were evaluated. Results showed high levels of fecal pollution as well as inorganic and organic matter abundant enough to support the heterotrophic growth of microorganisms. These results indicate poor water quality in samples from different locations. One hundred and fifty Escherichia coli were collected and screened by PCR for several virulence genes. Isolates were classified as either pathogenic (n = 91) or commensal (n = 59). The disc diffusion method was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility to 13 antibiotics. Fifty-two percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent and 30.6% were multi-resistant. Eighteen E. coli strains were quinolone resistant of which 16 were multi-resistant. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes were detected in 12 isolates. Mutations at the Ser-83?Leu and/or Asp-87?Asn in the gyrA gene were detected as well as mutations at the Ser-80?Ile in parC. An E. coli microarray (Maxivirulence V 3.1) was used to characterize the virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes profiles of the fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. Antimicrobial resistance genes such as bla TEM, sulI, sulII, dhfrIX, aph3 (strA), and tet (B) as well as integrons were found in fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance E. coli strains. The presence of potential pathogenic E. coli and antibiotic resistance in San Pedro River such as FQ resistant E. coli could pose a potential threat to human and animal health. HubMed – drug


The Effects of Maternal Separation on Adult Methamphetamine Self-Administration, Extinction, Reinstatement, and MeCP2 Immunoreactivity in the Nucleus Accumbens.

Front Psychiatry. 2013; 4: 55
Lewis CR, Staudinger K, Scheck L, Olive MF

The maternal separation (MS) paradigm is an animal model of early life stress. Animals subjected to MS during the first 2?weeks of life display altered behavioral and neuroendocrinological stress responses as adults. MS also produces altered responsiveness to and self-administration (SA) of various drugs of abuse including cocaine, ethanol, and amphetamine. However, no studies have yet examined the effects of MS on methamphetamine (METH) SA. This study was performed to examine the effects of MS on the acquisition of METH SA, extinction, and reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior in adulthood. Given the known influence of early life stress and drug exposure on epigenetic processes, we also investigated group differences in levels of the epigenetic marker methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. Long-Evans pups and dams were separated on postnatal days (PND) 2-14 for either 180 (MS180) or 15?min (MS15). Male offspring were allowed to acquire METH SA (0.05?mg/kg/infusion) in 15 2-h daily sessions starting at PND67, followed by extinction training and cue-induced reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior. Rats were then assessed for MeCP2 levels in the NAc core by immunohistochemistry. The MS180 group self-administered significantly more METH and acquired SA earlier than the MS15 group. No group differences in extinction or cue-induced reinstatement were observed. MS15 rats had significantly elevated MeCP2-immunoreactive cells in the NAc core as compared to MS180 rats. Together, these data suggest that MS has lasting influences on METH SA as well as epigenetic processes in the brain reward circuitry. HubMed – drug


Effects of the ?-secretase inhibitor semagacestat on hippocampal neuronal network oscillation.

Front Pharmacol. 2013; 4: 72
Hajós M, Morozova E, Siok C, Atchison K, Nolan CE, Riddell D, Kiss T, Hajós-Korcsok E

Neurological and psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with disruption of various cognitive functions, but development of effective drug treatments for these conditions has proven challenging. One of the main obstacles is the poor predictive validity of our preclinical animal models. In the present study the effects of the ?-secretase inhibitor semagacestat was evaluated in preclinical in vivo electrophysiological models. Recently disclosed Phase III findings on semagacestat indicated that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients on this drug showed significantly worsened cognitive function compared to those treated with placebo. Since previous studies have shown that drugs impairing cognitive function (including scopolamine, NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor antagonists, and nociceptin receptor agonists) disrupt or decrease power of elicited theta oscillation in the hippocampus, we tested the effects of acute and sub-chronic administration of semagacestat in this assay. Field potentials were recorded across the hippocampal formation with NeuroNexus multi-site silicon probes in urethane anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice; hippocampal CA1 theta oscillation was elicited by electrical stimulation of the brainstem nucleus pontis oralis. Sub-chronic administration of semagacestat twice daily over 12 days at a dose known to reduce beta-amyloid peptide (A?) level [100 mg/kg, p.o. (per oral)] diminished power of elicited hippocampal theta oscillation. Acute, subcutaneous administration of semagacestat (100 mg/kg) produced a similar effect on hippocampal activity. We propose that the disruptive effect of semagacestat on hippocampal function could be one of the contributing mechanisms to its worsening of cognition in patients with AD. As it has been expected, both acute and sub-chronic administrations of semagacestat significantly decreased A?40 and A?42 levels but the current findings do not reveal the mode of action of semagacestat in disrupting hippocampal oscillignificantly reduced braination. HubMed – drug