Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (Ppar) Agonists as Promising New Medications for Drug Addiction: Preclinical Evidence.

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (Ppar) Agonists as Promising New Medications for Drug Addiction: Preclinical Evidence.

Curr Drug Targets. 2013 Apr 22;
Le Foll B, Di Ciano P, Panlilio LV, Goldberg SR, Ciccocioppo R

This review examines the growing literature on the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in addiction. There are two subtypes of PPAR receptors that have been studied in addiction: PPAR-? and PPAR-?. The role of each PPAR subtype in common models of addictive behavior, mainly pre-clinical models, is summarized. In particular, studies are reviewed that investigated the effects of PPAR-? agonists on relapse, sensitization, conditioned place preference, withdrawal and drug intake, and effects of PPAR-? agonists on relapse, withdrawal and drug intake. Finally, studies that investigated the effects of PPAR agonists on neural pathways of addiction are reviewed. Taken together this preclinical data indicates that PPAR agonists are promising new medications for drug addiction treatment. HubMed – addiction


Comment on “intranasal oxytocin blocks alcohol withdrawal in human subjects” by pedersen and colleagues ().

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013 May; 37(5): 720-1
Rehme M, Hillemacher T, Heberlein A

HubMed – addiction


The contributions of value-based decision-making and attentional bias to alcohol-seeking following devaluation.

Addiction. 2013 Apr 4;
Rose AK, Brown K, Field M, Hogarth L

AIMS: To investigate the mediating role of attentional bias for alcohol cues on alcohol-seeking following devaluation of alcohol. DESIGN: Between subject. SETTING: Eye-tracking laboratory at the University of Liverpool. PARTICIPANTS: Student social drinkers (n?=?64). MEASUREMENTS: An operant choice task in which participants chose between simultaneously presented alcohol and non-alcohol drink rewards, while attentional bias for alcohol and non-alcohol drink cues was inferred from eye movements. Participants then consumed 30?mL of an alcoholic beverage, which was either presented alone (no devaluation: n?=?32) or had been adulterated to taste unpleasant (devaluation: n?=?32). Choice and attentional bias for the alcohol and non-alcohol drink pictures were then measured again. FINDINGS: Alcohol devaluation reduced behavioural choice for alcohol (F?=?32.64, P?HubMed – addiction


Internet-based intervention to promote mental fitness in mildly depressed adults: design of a randomized controlled trial.

JMIR Res Protoc. 2012; 1(1): e2
Bolier L, Haverman M, Kramer J, Boon B, Smit F, Riper H, Bohlmeijer E

Investing in mental well-being is considered a supplement to current mental health service delivery in which the treatment and prevention of mental disorders are core components. It may be possible for people to enhance their well-being by boosting their “mental fitness.”Psyfit, an online, multi-component, fully automated self-help intervention, was developed with the aim of improving well-being and reducing depressive symptoms. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of this intervention will be examined in a randomized controlled trial.In this two-armed randomized controlled trial, a total of 290 participants will be assigned to use Psyfit (experimental condition) or to a 6-month waiting list (control condition). Adults with mild to moderate depressive symptoms interested in improving their mental fitness will be recruited from the general population through advertisements on the Internet and in newspapers. Online measurements by self-assessment will be made prior to randomization (pre-test), 2 months after baseline (post-test), and 6 months after baseline (follow-up).The primary outcome is well-being. Secondary outcomes are depressive symptoms, general health, vitality, and economic costs. Analysis will be conducted in accordance with the intention-to-treat principle.This study will examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of an online intervention that aims to promote well-being in people with elevated levels of depressive symptoms. If shown to be effective, the intervention could prove to be an affordable and widely accessible intervention to improve well-being in the general population.The study is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, part of the Dutch Cochrane Centre (NTR2126). HubMed – addiction


Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013 Feb; 17 Suppl 1: 65-85
Testa A, Giannuzzi R, Sollazzo F, Petrongolo L, Bernardini L, Dain S

BACKGROUND: In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. “Comorbidity phenomenon” defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called “dual diagnosis”. The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain’s reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common substances producing an addiction status may be assembled in depressants (alcohol, benzodiazepines, opiates), stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, nicotine, caffeine, modafinil), hallucinogens (mescaline, LSD, ecstasy) and other substances (cannabis, dissociatives, inhalants). Anxiety disorders can occur in intoxication by stimulants, as well as in withdrawal syndrome, both by stimulants and sedatives. Substance induced mood disorders and psychotic symptoms are as much frequent conditions in ED, and the recognition of associated organic symptoms may allow to achieve diagnosis. Finally, psychiatric and organic symptoms may be caused by prescription and doping medications, either as a direct effect or after withdrawal. Adverse drug reactions can be divided in type A, dose dependent and predictable, including psychotropic drugs and hormones; and type B, dose independent and unpredictable, usually including non psychotropic drugs, more commonly included being cardiovascular, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic medications. HubMed – addiction