Percutaneous Transforaminal Epidural Injection Method in an Experimental Rat: Minimally Invasive Drug Delivery Method to Spinal Epidural Space.

Percutaneous transforaminal epidural injection method in an experimental rat: minimally invasive drug delivery method to spinal epidural space.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Ann Rehabil Med. 2012 Oct; 36(5): 640-7
Kim NH, Lee SH, Lee SJ

To compare a newly developed minimally-invasive method for percutaneous transforaminal epidural injection (INJ group) with the existing method for lumbar epidural catheterization (CATH group).Through anatomical review of experimental rats, the cephalic one fourth of the neural foramen was selected as the target point for drug delivery. After the rats had undergone lumbar epidural catheterization, lidocaine, and 1% methylene blue were injected through the unilateral or bilateral L5/6 neural foramen in the INJ group, and through an epidural catheter in the CATH group. Measurement of body weight and the mechanical allodynia test before and after injection of lidocaine, and fine dissection after injection were performed.Results of the mechanical allodynia test of 1.0% lidocaine 50 µl injection in the CATH group were statistically similar to those of 0.5% lidocaine 100 µl injection in the INJ group. The results of 2.0% lidocaine 50 µl injection in the CATH group were statistically similar to those of 1.0% lidocaine 100 µl injection in the INJ group. After dissection, only one distal partial spinal nerve was stained by methylene blue 50 µl through the transforaminal pathway. However, the dorsal root ganglion, nerve root, and adjacent hemi-partial spinal cord were stained by methylene blue 100 µl through the transforaminal pathway.The percutaneous transforaminal epidural injection is practical, easy, and safe, and, in particular, does not cause significant pain compared to the existing lumbar epidural catheterization. We expect this method to be effective in an animal study showing that drug delivery to the spinal epidural space is necessary.
HubMed – drug


Minocycline effect on life and health span of Drosophila melanogaster.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Aging Dis. 2012 Oct; 3(5): 352-9
Oxenkrug G, Navrotskaya V, Vorobyova L, Summergrad P

Up-regulation of kynurenine (KYN) pathway of tryptophan (TRP) was suggested as one of the mechanisms of aging and aging-associated disorders. Genetic and pharmacological impairment of TRP – KYN metabolism resulted in prolongation of life span in Drosophila models. Minocycline, an antibiotic with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective properties independent of its antibacterial activity, inhibited KYN formation from TRP. Since minocycline is the only FDA approved for human use medication with inhibitory effect on TRP – KYN metabolism, we were interested to study minocycline effect on life- and health-spans in Drosophila model. Minocycline (0.87mM) prolonged mean, median and maximum life span of wild-type Oregon Drosophila melanogaster of both genders. Minocycline (0.87 mM) stimulated vertical climbing in male flies. Minocycline dose-dependently decreased quantity and survivorship of pupae of filial generation. Minocycline might be a promising candidate drug for anti-aging intervention and treatment of aging-associated medical and psychiatric disorders. The role of TRP – KYN metabolism in the mechanisms of minocycline-effect on life- and health-span might be elucidated by the future assessment of minocycline effects in Drosophila mutants naturally or artificially knockout for genes impacting the key enzymes of KYN pathway of TRP metabolism.
HubMed – drug


Licorice abuse: time to send a warning message.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Aug; 3(4): 125-38
Omar HR, Komarova I, El-Ghonemi M, Fathy A, Rashad R, Abdelmalak HD, Yerramadha MR, Ali Y, Helal E, Camporesi EM

Licorice extract has always been recognized as a sweetener and a thirst quencher. Its nutritive value is overrated by many who consume significant amounts and are prone to complications. Glycyrrhetic acid, the active metabolite in licorice, inhibits the enzyme 11-ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme type 2 with a resultant cortisol-induced mineralocorticoid effect and the tendency towards the elevation of sodium and reduction of potassium levels. This aldosterone-like action is the fundamental basis for understanding its health benefits and the wide spectrum of adverse effects. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of licorice along with the reported complications related to excess intake. Despite its apparent use in a few clinical scenarios, the daily consumption of licorice is never justified because its benefits are minor compared to the adverse outcomes of chronic consumption. The review highlights the importance of investigating the dietary habits and herbal remedies which are being used worldwide on cultural and habitual bases rather than reliable scientific evidence. Licorice is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved food supplement used in many products without precise regulations to prevent toxicity. Increased awareness among the public is required through TV commercials, newspapers, internet sites, magazines and product labels regarding the upper limit of ingestion and health hazards associated with excess intake. We hope that this review will serve as a warning message that should be transmitted from physicians to patients to avoid excessive licorice intake as well as a message to the FDA to start regulating the use of this substance.
HubMed – drug


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