Parental and Peer Factors Associated With Body Image Discrepancy Among Fifth-Grade Boys and Girls.

Parental and Peer Factors Associated with Body Image Discrepancy among Fifth-Grade Boys and Girls.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

J Youth Adolesc. 2013 Jan 19;
Michael SL, Wentzel K, Elliott MN, Dittus PJ, Kanouse DE, Wallander JL, Pasch KE, Franzini L, Taylor WC, Qureshi T, Franklin FA, Schuster MA

Many young adolescents are dissatisfied with their body due to a discrepancy between their ideal and actual body size, which can lead to weight cycling, eating disorders, depression, and obesity. The current study examined the associations of parental and peer factors with fifth-graders’ body image discrepancy, physical self-worth as a mediator between parental and peer factors and body image discrepancy, and how these associations vary by child’s sex. Body image discrepancy was defined as the difference between young adolescents’ self-perceived body size and the size they believe a person their age should be. Data for this study came from Healthy Passages, which surveyed 5,147 fifth graders (51 % females; 34 % African American, 35 % Latino, 24 % White, and 6 % other) and their primary caregivers from the United States. Path analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. The findings for boys suggest father nurturance and getting along with peers are related negatively to body image discrepancy; however, for girls, fear of negative evaluation by peers is related positively to body image discrepancy. For both boys and girls, getting along with peers and fear of negative evaluation by peers are related directly to physical self-worth. In addition, mother nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for girls, and father nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for boys. In turn, physical self-worth, for both boys and girls, is related negatively to body image discrepancy. The findings highlight the potential of parental and peer factors to reduce fifth graders’ body image discrepancy.
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Lamotrigine in Binge-Eating Disorder Associated With Bipolar II Depression and Treatment-Resistant Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Clin Neuropharmacol. 2013 Jan; 36(1): 34-35
Yamamoto T, Kanahara N, Hirai A, Watanabe H, Iyo M

BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LMG) is an anticonvulsant currently registered for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BP) depression. We report the case of a 61-year-old woman with comorbid binge-eating disorder (BED), BP depression, and treatment-resistant type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), in which LMG showed significant efficacy against BED and BP depression and resulted in a drastic decrease in plasma glucose levels. CASE REPORT: The patient had had untreated BP depression, BED, and T2DM for more than 30 years. We prescribed LMG at 25 mg/d for BP depression and titrated it up to 50 mg/d over 4 weeks, then maintained this dose for the next 16 weeks. At follow-up after the first 4-week period, she reported a significant decrease in compulsive eating impulses and depressive mood, and her positive reports were consistent in the following months. Hemoglobin A1c levels at National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program decreased drastically from 9.6% to 7.1% over the 20 weeks after initiating treatment. CONCLUSION: This case suggests that LMG might be beneficial for BED with concomitant BP depression, and potentially for treatment-resistant T2DM, if this refractoriness is identified to result from comorbidity of BED and BP.
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Maternal report of young children’s eating styles: Validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in three ethnically diverse Australian samples.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Appetite. 2013 Jan 16;
Mallan KM, Liu WH, Mehta RJ, Daniels LA, Magarey A, Battistutta D

The aim of this study was to validate the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) in three ethnically and culturally diverse samples of mothers in Australia. Confirmatory factor analysis utilising structural equation modelling examined whether the established 8-factor model of the CEBQ was supported in our three populations: (i) a community sample of first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH trial (mean child age=24 months [SD=1]; N=244); (ii) a sample of immigrant Indian mothers of children aged 1-5 years (mean age=34 months [SD=14]; N=203), and (iii) a sample of immigrant Chinese mothers of children aged 1-4 years (mean age=36 months [SD=14]; N=216). The original 8-factor model provided an acceptable fit to the data in the NOURISH sample with minor post hoc re-specifications (two error covariances on Satiety Responsiveness and an item-factor covariance to account for a cross-loading of an item (Fussiness) on Satiety Responsiveness). The re-specified model showed reasonable fit in both the Indian and Chinese samples. Cronbach’s ? estimates ranged from .73- .91 in the Australian sample and .61-.88 in the immigrant samples. This study supports the appropriateness of the CEBQ in the multicultural Australian context.
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An isocaloric increase of eating episodes in the morning contributes to decrease energy intake at lunch in lean men.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Physiol Behav. 2013 Jan 17;
Allirot X, Saulais L, Seyssel K, Graeppi-Dulac J, Roth H, Charrié A, Drai J, Goudable J, Blond E, Disse E, Laville M

The effects of increasing eating frequency on human health are unclear. This study used an integrated approach to assess the short-term consequences on appetite and metabolism. Twenty normal-weight men participated in: (i) two sessions consisting of a breakfast consumed in one eating episode at T0 (F1), or in four isocaloric eating episodes at T0, T60, T120, T180min (F4), and followed by an ecological ad libitum buffet meal (T240) designed in an experimental restaurant. Intakes were assessed for the whole buffet meal and for each temporal quarter of the meal. (ii) two sessions consisting of the same two breakfasts F1 and F4 in a Clinical Investigation Center. Blood sampling was performed to study the kinetics of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose, insulin, Triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Substrate oxidation was measured by indirect calorimetry. During each of the 4 sessions, participants rated their appetite throughout the experiment. After F4, at T240min, GLP-1 concentration was higher (P=0.006) while ghrelin concentration and hunger ratings were lower (P<0.001). We showed a trend for subjects to consume less energy (- 88±61kcal, P=0.08) at the buffet after F4, explained by a decrease in lipid intake (P=0.04). Marked differences in consumption were observed during the last temporal quarter of the meal for total energy and lipid intake (P=0.03). Mixed models highlighted differences between F1 and F4 for the kinetics of glucose, insulin and NEFA (P<0.001). The area under the curve was lower for insulin (P<0.001) and NEFA in F4 (P=0.03). Diet induced thermogenesis was reduced in F4 (P<0.05). This study demonstrated the beneficial short-term effect of increasing eating frequency on appetite in lean men considering subjective, physiological and behavioral data. However, the loss of the inter-prandial fast was associated with an inhibition of lipolysis, reflected by NEFA profiles, and a decrease in energy expenditure. HubMed – eating


Eating beyond metabolic need: how environmental cues influence feeding behavior.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Trends Neurosci. 2013 Jan 17;
Johnson AW

Animals use current, past, and projected future states of the organism and the world in a finely tuned system to control ingestion. They must not only deal effectively with current nutrient deficiencies, but also manage energy resources to meet future needs, all within the constraints of the mechanisms of metabolism. Many recent approaches to understanding the control of ingestive behavior distinguish between homeostatic mechanisms concerned with energy balance, and hedonic and incentive processes based on palatability and reward characteristics of food. In this review, I consider how learning about environmental cues influences homeostatic and hedonic brain signals, which may lead to increases in the affective taste properties of food and desire to over consume. Understanding these mechanisms may be critical for elucidating the etiology of the obesity epidemic.
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