Paediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Impact on Patients and Mothers’ Quality of Life.

Paediatric non-alcoholic Fatty liver disease: impact on patients and mothers’ quality of life.

Hepat Mon. 2013 Mar; 13(3): e7871
Mazzone L, Postorino V, De Peppo L, Della Corte C, Lofino G, Vassena L, Fatta L, Armando M, Bedogni G, Vicari S, Nobili V

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the causes of fatty liver in adults and is currently the primary form of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. However, the psychological outcome (i.e. the behavioural problems that can in turn be related to psychiatric conditions, like anxiety and mood disorders, or lower quality of life) in children and adolescents suffering of NAFLD has not been extensively explored in the literature.The present study aims at evaluating the emotional and behavioural profile in children suffering from NAFLD and the quality of life in their mothers.A total of 57 children (18 females/39 males) with NAFLD were compared to 39 age-matched control children (25 females/14 males). All participants were submitted to the following psychological tools to assess behavior, mood, and anxiety: the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI). Moreover, the mothers of 40 NAFLD and 39 control children completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire.NAFLD children scored significantly higher as compared to control children in MASC (P = 0.001) and CDI total (P < 0.001) scales. The CBCL also revealed significantly higher scores for NAFLD children in total problems (P = 0.046), internalizing symptoms (P = 0.000) and somatic complaints (P < 0.001). The WHOQOL-BREF revealed significantly lower scores for the mothers of NAFLD children in the overall perception of the quality of life (P < 0.001), and in the "relationships" domain (P = 0.023).Increased emotional and behavioural problems were detected in children with NAFLD as compared to healthy control children, together with an overall decrease in their mothers' quality of life. These results support the idea that these patients may benefit from a psychological intervention, ideally involving both children and parents, whose quality of life is likely negatively affected by this disease. HubMed – depression


Psychomotor retardation and externally oriented thinking in major depression.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013; 9: 759-66
Luca M, Luca A, Calandra C

To investigate possible correlations between the tendency towards alexithymia and the depressive state, globally and with regard to the Toronto Alexithymia scale (TAS-20) subscales and the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAM-D) subscales.75 patients, suffering from Unipolar Depression, were assessed through the HAM-D and the TAS-20 and compared to the control group (n = 63). Both groups were divided into two subgroups (30-60 years old; 61-80 years old). Correlations between the tendency towards alexithymia and depressive symptoms, globally and with regard to the TAS-20 subscales and the HAM-D subscales, were investigated.WITH REGARD TO PATIENTS, A POSITIVE CORRELATION WAS FOUND BETWEEN: the HAM-D total score and the TAS-20 total score; the HAM-D factor V (psychomotor retardation) and the TAS-20 total score; the TAS-20 subscale III (externally oriented thinking) and the HAM-D total score. In addition a positive correlation between the HAM-D factor V and the TAS-20 subscales I and III was found and confirmed among females. In patients aged 30-60 years, the HAM-D factor V was correlated with all the TAS-20 subscales. As to the control group, a positive correlation was found between: the HAM-D factor I (anxiety/somatization) and the TAS-20 total score; the TAS-20 subscale I and the HAM-D total score; the HAM-D factor I and the TAS-20 subscale. The latter was confirmed in the control group aged 30-60 years.The link between alexithymia and affective symptoms has been confirmed in the patients and in the control group. An interesting data is the correlation between psychomotor retardation and externally oriented thinking among the patients. According to cognitive theories, psychomotor retardation could be related to feelings of incapacity perceived by an individual. A patient, with an externally oriented thinking, might run into a distorted perception of his own ability to function, thus causing a psychomotor “fattening”. HubMed – depression


Development of scales to assess mental health literacy relating to recognition of and interventions for depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia/psychosis.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2013 Jun 6;
Reavley NJ, Morgan AJ, Jorm AF

Objective:The aim of this study was to develop scales to assess mental health literacy relating to affective disorders, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia/psychosis.Method:Scales were created to assess mental health literacy in relation to depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia, chronic schizophrenia, social phobia and post-traumatic stress disorder using data from a survey of 1536 health professionals (general practitioners, clinical psychologists and psychiatrists), assessing recognition of these disorders and beliefs about the helpfulness of interventions. This was done by using the consensus of experts about the helpfulness and harmfulness of treatments for each disorder as a criterion. Data from a general population survey of 6019 Australians aged ? 15 was used to examine associations between scale scores, exposure to mental disorders and sociodemographic variables, to assess scale validity.Results:Those with a close friend or family member with a mental disorder had significantly higher mean scores on all mental health literacy scales, providing support for scale validity. Personal experience of the problem and working with people with a similar problem was linked to higher scores on some scales. Male sex, a lower level of education and age > 60 were linked to lower levels of mental health literacy. Higher scores were also linked to a greater belief that people with mental disorders are sick rather than weak.Conclusions:The scales developed in this study allow for the assessment of mental health literacy in relation to depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, early schizophrenia, chronic schizophrenia, social phobia and PTSD. Those with exposure to mental disorders had higher scores on the scales, and analyses of the links between scale scores and sociodemographic variables of age, gender and level of education were in line with those seen in other studies, providing support for scale validity. HubMed – depression


Models of depression: unpredictable chronic mild stress in mice.

Curr Protoc Pharmacol. 2013 Jun; Chapter 5: Unit5.65
Nollet M, Guisquet AM, Belzung C

Major depression is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by affective, cognitive, and physiological impairments that lead to maladaptive behavior. The high lifetime prevalence of this disabling condition, coupled with limitations in existing medications, make necessary the development of improved therapeutics. This requires animal models that allow investigation of key biological correlates of the disorder. Described in this unit is the unpredictable chronic mild stress mouse model that is used to screen for antidepressant drug candidates. Originally designed for rats, this model has been adapted for mice to capitalize on the advantages of this species as an experimental model, including inter-strain variability, which permits an exploration of the contribution of genetic background, the ability to create transgenic animals, and lower cost. Thus, by combining genetic features and socio-environmental chronic stressful events, the unpredictable, chronic mild stress model in mice can be used to study the etiological and developmental components of major depression, and to identify novel treatments for this condition. Curr. Protoc. Pharmacol. 61:5.65.1-5.65.17 © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. HubMed – depression



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