Overweight in Adolescents: Exploring Potential Risk Factors.

Overweight in adolescents: exploring potential risk factors.

Rev Paul Pediatr. 2013 Jun; 31(2): 172-181
Benedet J, Assis MA, Calvo MC, Andrade DF

To estimate the prevalence of overweight and to identify associations with sociodemographic, biological and lifestyle factors in adolescents from Florianopolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.Cross-sectional study carried out in 2007 with a probabilistic sample of 1,590 schoolchildren aged from 11 to 14 years old. The prevalence of overweight, based on body mass index, was estimated by the Brazilian reference and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Multivariate analysis expressed as odds ratios were used to identify associations with sociodemographic, biological and lifestyle factors among adolescents.The prevalence of overweight was 19.3% (24.5% in boys and 14.5% in girls) using the IOFT reference, and 25.8% (31.8% in boys and 20.5% in girls) by the Brazilian reference. Among male adolescents, overweight was positively associated with unbalanced food consumption and inactive commuting to school. Among girls, the factors associated with overweight were: mother’s overweight, unbalanced food consumption and discordance between stages for sexual maturity indicators.The consumption of foods with high nutritional value was a protective factor against overweight among adolescents. This finding reinforces the importance of actions aimed at changing behaviors related to the family environment by encouraging the incorporation of healthy eating and active leisure time. HubMed – eating


Desire lies in the eyes: Attention bias for chocolate is related to craving and self-endorsed eating permission.

Appetite. 2013 Jul 1;
Werthmann J, Roefs A, Nederkoorn C, Jansen A

The present study tested the impact of experimentally manipulated perceived availability of chocolate on attention for chocolate stimuli, momentary (state) craving for chocolate and consumption of chocolate in healthy weight female students. It was hypothesized that eating forbiddance would be related to attentional avoidance (thus diminished attention focus on food cues in an attempt to prevent oneself from processing food cues) and that eating motivation would be related to attentional approach bias (thus maintained attentional focus on food cues). High chronic chocolate cravers (n = 40) and low cravers (n = 40) participated in one of four perceived availability contexts (required to eat, forbidden to eat, individual choice to eat, and 50% chance to eat) following a brief chocolate exposure. Attention for chocolate was measured using eye-tracking; momentary craving from self-report; and the consumption of chocolate was assessed from direct observation. The perceived availability of chocolate did not significantly influence attention allocation for chocolate stimuli, momentary craving or chocolate intake. High chocolate cravers reported significantly higher momentary craving for chocolate (d = 1.28, p <.001), and showed longer initial duration of gaze on chocolate, than low cravers (d = 0.63, p < .01). In contrast, participants who indicated during the manipulation check that they would not have permitted themselves to eat chocolate, irrespective of the availability instruction they received, showed significantly less craving (d = 0.95, p < .01) and reduced total dwell time for chocolate stimuli than participants who permitted themselves to eat chocolate (d = 0.53, p < .05). Thus, this study provides evidence that attention biases for food stimuli reflect inter-individual differences in eating motivation, - such as chronic chocolate craving, and self-endorsed eating permission. HubMed – eating


School-based eating disorder prevention: a pilot effectiveness trial of teacher-delivered Media Smart.

Early Interv Psychiatry. 2013 Jul 4;
Wilksch SM

This pilot study tested teacher-delivered Media Smart, a school-based eating disorder prevention program that has achieved significant benefits when delivered by health professionals.Two Grade 7 classes (N?=?51; M age?=?12.43 years) participated, with one randomly allocated to Media Smart (n?=?27; 67% girls) and the other to a control condition of usual lessons (n?=?24; 37% girls). Program feasibility was assessed by teacher self-report, whereas student self-report of shape and weight concern (primary outcome variable) and seven additional risk factors were measured at baseline, post-program and 6-month follow up.Teacher ratings of program feasibility revealed that 25 of the 29 (86.2%) program activities were taught with 96% of activities rated as either highly (19 activities) or moderately (5 activities) valuable for students. Mixed model analyses were conducted using a 2 (group: Media Smart, control)?×?2 (time: post-program, 6-month follow up)?×?2 (gender: girls, boys) design, with baseline scores as a covariate. A not-significant trend for group favouring Media Smart was observed for shape and weight concern (Cohen’s d effect size [d]?=?0.32), whereas significant effects were found for feelings of ineffectiveness (d?=?0.52) and weight-related peer teasing (d?=?0.68).The program was feasible for teacher delivery and showed some promising results, supporting a more substantial randomized-controlled effectiveness trial. HubMed – eating


A systematic review of physical therapy interventions for patients with anorexia and bulemia nervosa.

Disabil Rehabil. 2013 Jul 4;
Vancampfort D, Vanderlinden J, De Hert M, Soundy A, Adámkova M, Skjaerven LH, Catalán-Matamoros D, Lundvik Gyllensten A, Gómez-Conesa A, Probst M

Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to summarise the evidence from randomised controlled trials examining the effectiveness of physical therapy compared with care as usual or a wait-list condition on eating pathology and on physiological and psychological parameters in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Method: EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Physiotherapy Evidence Database and The Cochrane Library were searched from their inception until February, 2013. Articles were eligible if they utilised a randomised controlled trial design, compared physical therapy with a placebo condition, control intervention, or standard care and included patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. The methodological quality was assessed with the Jadad scale. Results: Eight randomised controlled trials involving 213 patients (age range: 16-36 years) met all selection criteria. Three of the 8 included studies were of strong methodological quality (Jadad score?3). Major methodological weaknesses were attrition and selection bias. The main results demonstrate that aerobic and resistance training result in significantly increased muscle strength, body mass index and body fat percentage in anorexia patients. In addition, aerobic exercise, yoga, massage and basic body awareness therapy significantly lowered scores of eating pathology and depressive symptoms in both anorexia and bulimia nervosa patients. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusions: The paucity and heterogeneity of available studies limits overall conclusions and highlights the need for further research. Implications for Rehabilitation Supervised physical therapy might increase weight in anorexia nervosa patients. Aerobic exercise, massage, basic body awareness therapy and yoga might reduce eating pathology in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Aerobic exercise, yoga and basic body awareness therapy might improve mental and physical quality of life in patients with an eating disorder. HubMed – eating