Nonmotor Fluctuations in Parkinson Disease: Severity and Correlation With Motor Complications.

Nonmotor fluctuations in Parkinson disease: Severity and correlation with motor complications.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Neurology. 2013 Jan 30;
Storch A, Schneider CB, Wolz M, Stürwald Y, Nebe A, Odin P, Mahler A, Fuchs G, Jost WH, Chaudhuri KR, Koch R, Reichmann H, Ebersbach G

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate frequency, severity, and correlation of nonmotor symptoms (NMS) with motor complications in fluctuating Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: The Multicenter NonMotor Fluctuations in PD cross-sectional study used clinical examination of 10 NMS (dysphagia, anxiety, depression, fatigue, excessive sweating, inner restlessness, pain, concentration/attention, dizziness, bladder urgency) quantified using a visual analogue scale (VAS) in motor-defined on (NMS(On)) and off state (NMS(Off)) combined with motor assessments and self-ratings at home in 100 patients with advanced PD. RESULTS: All NMS except dysphagia, excessive sweating, and bladder urgency fluctuated in conjunction to motor fluctuations with more frequent and severe symptoms in off compared to on state. The proportions of patients experiencing autonomic/sensory NMS in both motor states were similar to those with these NMS exclusively in off state (ratios 0.4-1.3), while for mental/psychic NMS the proportions with exclusive manifestation in off state were higher (ratios 1.8-3.1). Demographic and clinical characteristics correlated neither with NMS frequency patterns and severities nor with ?NMS(On/Off) severities (defined as the differences of VAS scores between on and off). Severities of NMS(on), NMS(Off), and ?NMS(On/Off) did not correlate with motor function. Presence of anxiety, depression, fatigue, and pain had negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measured by Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-8 scoring independent of their occurrence with respect to motor state. Fluctuations of these NMS but not of fatigue deteriorated HRQOL. CONCLUSION: Patterns of NMS fluctuations are heterogeneous and complex, but psychic NMS fluctuate more frequently and severely. Demographic parameters and motor function do not correlate with NMS or nonmotor fluctuation severities in fluctuating PD.
HubMed – depression


A randomized controlled trial of intranasal ketamine in migraine with prolonged aura.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Neurology. 2013 Jan 30;
Afridi SK, Giffin NJ, Kaube H, Goadsby PJ

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that ketamine would affect aura in a randomized controlled double-blind trial, and thus to provide direct evidence for the role of glutamatergic transmission in human aura. METHODS: We performed a double-blinded, randomized parallel-group controlled study investigating the effect of 25 mg intranasal ketamine on migraine with prolonged aura in 30 migraineurs using 2 mg intranasal midazolam as an active control. Each subject recorded data from 3 episodes of migraine. RESULTS: Eighteen subjects completed the study. Ketamine reduced the severity (p = 0.032) but not duration of aura in this group, whereas midazolam had no effect. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide translational evidence for the potential importance of glutamatergic mechanisms in migraine aura and offer a pharmacologic parallel between animal experimental work on cortical spreading depression and the clinical problem. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that intranasal ketamine is effective in reducing aura severity in patients with migraine with prolonged aura.
HubMed – depression



Filed under: Depression Treatment

Depress Anxiety. 2013 Jan 30;
Kovess-Masfety V, Alonso J, Angermeyer M, Bromet E, de Girolamo G, de Jonge P, Demyttenaere K, Florescu SE, Gruber MJ, Gureje O, Hu C, Huang Y, Karam EG, Jin R, Lépine JP, Levinson D, McLaughlin KA, Medina-Mora ME, O’Neill S, Ono Y, Posada-Villa JA, Sampson NA, Scott KM, Shahly V, Stein DJ, Viana MC, Zarkov Z, Kessler RC

BACKGROUND: Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). METHODS: The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. RESULTS: Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. CONCLUSION: Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood.
HubMed – depression


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