Non-Viral Factors Contributing to Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Non-viral factors contributing to hepatocellular carcinoma.

World J Hepatol. 2013 Jun 27; 5(6): 311-322
Hamed MA, Ali SA

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, accounting for over half a million deaths per year. The geographic pattern of HCC incidence is parallel to exposure to viral etiologic factors. Its incidence is increasing, ranging between 3% and 9% annually depending on the geographical location, and variability in the incidence rates correspond closely to the prevalence and pattern of the primary etiologic factors. Chronic infections with hepatitis B viruses or hepatitis C viruses have both been recognized as human liver carcinogens with a combined attributable fraction of at least 75% of all HCC cases. Multiple non-viral factors have been implicated in the development of HCC. Increased body mass index and diabetes with subsequent development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis represent significant risk factors for HCC. Other non-viral causes of HCC include iron overload syndromes, alcohol use, tobacco, oral contraceptive, aflatoxin, pesticides exposure and betel quid chewing, a prevalent habit in the developing world. Wilson disease, ?-1 antitrypsin deficiency, Porphyrias, autoimmune hepatitis, Schistosoma japonicum associated with positive hepatitis B surface antigen, and thorotrast-ray are also contributing hepatocellualar carcinoma. In addition, primary biliary cirrhosis, congestive liver disease and family history of liver cancer increase the risk of HCC incident. In conclusion, clarification of relevant non-viral causes of HCC will help to focus clinicians on those risk factors that are modifiable. The multilevel preventative approach will hopefully lead to a reduction in incidence of non-viral HCC, and a decrease in the patient morbidity and mortality as well as the societal economic burden associated with HCC. HubMed – drug


Endovascular Techniques In Limb Salvage: Infrapopliteal Angioplasty.

Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J. 2013 4; 9(2): 103-107
Naoum JJ, Arbid EJ

Critical limb ischemia (CLI) results from inadequate blood flow to supply and sustain the metabolic needs of resting muscle and tissue. Infragenicular atherosclerosis is the most common cause of CLI, and it is more likely to develop when multilevel or diffuse arterial disease coincides with compromised run-off to the foot. Reports of good technical and clinical outcomes have advanced the endovascular treatment options, which have gained a growing acceptance as the primary therapeutic strategy for CLI, especially in patients with significant risk factors for open surgical bypass. In fact, endovascular recanalization of below-the-knee arteries has proven to be feasible and safe, reduce the need for amputation, and improve wound healing. The distribution of various vascular territories or angiosomes in the foot has been recognized, and it appears advantageous to revascularize the artery supplying the territory directly associated with tissue loss. In addition, the targeted application and local delivery of drugs using drug-coated balloons (DCB) during angioplasty has the potential to improve patency rates compared to balloon angioplasty alone. HubMed – drug


Endovascular Techniques in Limb Salvage: Cutting, Cryo, Brachy, and Drug-Eluting Balloons.

Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J. 2013 4; 9(2): 69-72
Davies MG, Anaya-Ayala JE

The complex pathophysiology response to injury of the lower-extremity arteries has prompted the development of several unique balloon technologies to overcome initial technical failures and short-term intimal hyperplasia. Cryoplasty alters the cellular and mechanical properties of the vessel wall during angioplasty. Cutting balloons incise the wall, preventing elastic recoil and allowing expansion of the lumen at a lower pressure, thus limiting barotrauma. Drug-eluting balloons actively transfer inhibitory compounds to the wall during the initial therapy, while brachytherapy balloons allow for localized delivery of radiation to inhibit the proliferative response seen after angioplasty. These platforms provide unique means to enhance immediate and short-term results and also reduce stent usage in the lower extremity. HubMed – drug