No Untoward Effects of Smoking Cues in Anti-Smoking Public Service Announcements.

No untoward effects of smoking cues in anti-smoking public service announcements.

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Jun 3;
Falcone M, Lerman C, Cappella JN, Sanborn P, Jepson C, Strasser AA

BACKGROUND: Anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs) often include smoking-related cues; however, visual drug cues can trigger acute cravings that may impede cognitive processing of the anti-smoking message. This experiment evaluated effects of smoking cues in PSAs on smoking urges, immediate smoking behavior, and persuasion measures in daily smokers. METHODS: Three-hundred and eighteen non-treatment seeking smokers completed a single laboratory session during which they viewed sets of PSAs differentiated by presence of smoking cues (central to the PSA’s argument, peripheral, or no cues) and argument strength (high versus low). After viewing the PSAs, participants completed self-report measures of smoking urges, attitudes toward quitting, self-efficacy, and intentions to quit smoking. Smoking behavior was recorded during a 1-h ad libitum smoking period immediately following PSA viewing and assessment. RESULTS: There was a significant positive effect of argument strength on attitudes toward quitting smoking (p=0.012). There were no main effects of smoking cues or smoking cue by argument strength interactions on any of the outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: Visual smoking cues in PSAs do not increase urges to smoke, nor is there evidence that the inclusion of such cues impedes the recall or persuasive effects of anti-smoking arguments. HubMed – addiction


Gambling and problem gambling in the Netherlands.

Addiction. 2013 Jun 6;
Goudriaan AE

AIMS: To provide an overview of gambling in the Netherlands, focusing on historical background, policy, legislation, prevalence of problem gambling, availability of treatment options and research base. METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: Contradictions between gambling policy and practice have been present in the past 15-20 years, and have led to an increasingly stricter gambling regulation to retain the government policy to restrict gambling within a national monopoly. Conversely, political efforts have been made to legalize internet gambling, but have not yet been approved. Compared to other European countries, slot machine gambling and casino gambling are relatively popular, whereas betting is relatively unpopular. Last-year problem gambling prevalence (South Oaks Gambling Screen score?>?5) is estimated at 0.22-0.15% (2005, 2011). Treatment for problem gambling is covered by health insurance under the same conditions as substance dependence, but only a small proportion of Dutch problem gamblers seeks help at addiction treatment centres. CONCLUSIONS: Gambling policy in the Netherlands has become stricter during recent last years in order to maintain the Dutch gambling monopoly. Problem gambling in the Netherlands is relatively stable. Dutch research on problem gambling has a lack of longitudinal studies. Most of the epidemiological gambling studies are reported in non-peer-reviewed research reports, which diminishes control by independent peers on the methodology and interpretation of results. Recent efforts to enhance consistency in research methods between gambling studies over time could enhance knowledge on changes in (problem) gambling in the Netherlands. HubMed – addiction


Psychometric Evaluation of the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 in an Italian Sample.

Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2013 Jun 6;
Fioravanti G, Primi C, Casale S

Abstract The 15-item Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2) is one of the few theory-driven instruments to measure problematic Internet use (PIU). Since PIU has emerged in several cultural contexts, it seems relevant to evaluate the psychometric properties of the scale across various cultures. The aim of the present study was to test the psychometric properties (i.e., dimensionality, reliability, and validity) of the Italian version of the GPIUS2. The sample consisted of 371 participants (128 males and 243 females), and their age ranged from 14 to 33 years (M=18.07 years, SD=5.58). The GPIUS2 and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) were administered individually in both high school and college classes. With regard to scale dimensionality, the best-fit measurement model includes four first-order factors: preference for online social interaction, mood regulation, deficient self-regulation, and negative outcomes (Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square [S-B?(2)]/df=2.27; comparative fit index [CFI]=0.94; Tucker-Lewis index [TLI]=0.93; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.05). With regard to reliability, internal-consistency Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.78 to 0.89. Convergent validity is demonstrated with significant correlations between GPIUS2 (total score and all the subscale scores) and IAT score. Results showed that GPIUS2 scores significantly discriminated between high school and undergraduate students. The overall findings of the present study provide evidence that the Italian version of the GPIUS2 appears to be an adequate measure of generalized PIU cognitions, behaviors, and outcomes. Suggestions for further research are provided. HubMed – addiction