Night Eating Syndrome: Implications for Severe Obesity.

Night eating syndrome: implications for severe obesity.

Nutr Diabetes. 2012; 2: e44
Cleator J, Abbott J, Judd P, Sutton C, Wilding JP

Night eating syndrome (NES) was first identified in 1955 by Stunkard, a psychiatrist specialising in eating disorders (ED). Over the last 20 years considerable progress has been made in defining NES as a significant clinical entity in its own right and it has now been accepted for inclusion in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) due for publication in 2013. NES is considered a dysfunction of circadian rhythm with a disassociation between eating and sleeping. Core criteria include a daily pattern of eating with a significantly increased intake in the evening and/or night time, as manifested by one or both of the following: at least 25% of food intake is consumed after the evening meal or at least two episodes of nocturnal eating per week. An important recent addition to core criteria includes the presence of significant distress and/or impairment in functioning. Stunkard’s team recommend further investigation on the pathogenesis of NES, in particular its relationship with traumatic life events, psychiatric comorbidity, the age of onset of NES and course of NES over time. The relationship between NES and other ED also requires further clarification as night-eaters exhibit some features of other ED; previous guidance to separate NES from other ED may have hindered earlier characterisation of NES. Evidence from European and American studies suggests NES features strongly in populations with severe obesity. The complex interplay between depression, impaired sleep and obesity-related comorbidity in severely obese individuals makes understanding NES in this context even more difficult. This review examines evidence to date on the characterisation of NES and concludes by examining the applicability of current NES criteria to individuals with severe obesity. HubMed – eating


[Pulmonary abscess caused by fish bone].

Kyobu Geka. 2013 Mar; 66(3): 219-22
Matsuda E, Okabe K, Takahagi A, Hayashi T, Tanaka T, Sano F, Tao H

We describe an extremely rare case of pulmonary abscess caused by fish bone which stabbed the lung from transesophageal route. A 60-year-old woman referred to our hospital complaining of fever. Three days before, she had swallowing pain while eating the bony parts of a fish. An examination on admission showed that C-reactive protein (CRP) is 9.70 mg/dl. Chest computed tomography (CT)revealed, 4 cm mass shadow in the right upper lobe and fish bone material in the mass shadow. Esophagography showed no abnormal findings. Right upper lobectomy was performed under the diagnosis of pulmonary abscess by fish bone. Post operative course was uneventful. The cause was suspected of migration of a fish bone into the right upper lobe via mediasinum and thoracic cavity from esophagus. HubMed – eating


Nutritional and metabolic determinants of blood rheology differ between trained and sedentary individuals.

Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2013 Feb 27;
Varlet-Marie E, Guiraudou M, Fédou C, Raynaud de Mauverger E, Durand F, Brun JF

Body composition and nutrition have been reported to be correlated with blood rheology. However, in sedentary and in physically active individuals these relationships seem to be not exactly similar. This study investigated whether exercise training status influences these relationships. 32 athletes (ATH) (age: 25 ± 0.7 yr; body mass index (BMI): 23.75 ± 0.23 kg/m2) were compared to 21 sedentary subjects (SED) (age: 45.19 ± 2.90; BMI = 33.41 ± 1.33) with nutritional assessment (autoquestionnaire), bioelectrical impedancemetry, viscometry at high shear rate (MT90) and Myrenne aggregometer. Subjects differ according to age, weight and adiposity parameters. Their eating behavior is different: ATH eat a higher percentage of protein (p < 0.005), a lower percentage of lipid (p < 0.05), and a higher total amount of carbohydrate (+31% p < 0.02). Their viscosity factors are similar except plasma viscosity which is higher in SED than ATH (1.51 ± 0.03 vs 1.43 ± 0.02 mPa.s, p < 0.05). In both ATH and SED, abdominal obesity (waist-to-hip ratio or WHR) is associated with impairments in blood rheology, but not exactly the same. In ATH, WHR is associated with an increase in hematocrit (r = 0.647; p = 0.009), plasma viscosity (r = 0.723; p = 0.002), and caloric (and CHO) intake moderately increase RBC rigidity (r = 0.5405; p = 0.0251) and aggregability (r = 0.3366 p = 0.0596). In SED the picture is different, adiposity increases hematocrit (r = 0.460; p = 0.048), abdominal fatness increases blood viscosity independent of hematocrit, and CHO intake is associated with lower RBC aggregability (r = -0.493; p = 0.0319). HubMed – eating


Food for thought from plant and animal genomes.

Genome Biol. 2013 Feb 27; 14(2): 302
Abrash E

A report on the Plant and Animal Genome XXI meeting, held in San Diego, USA, January 12-16, 2013. MEETING REPORT: On 12 January, on a morning full of blue sky and cold sunshine, the Plant and Animal Genome XXI meeting opened its doors for the 21st time at the Town and Country Hotel in San Diego. I arrived a couple of hours late, a newbie toting a roller suitcase, a little unprepared for the sheer scope of the meeting I was about to attend. The diversity of topics and attendees at the meeting, ‘The Largest Ag-Genomics Meeting in the World’, was stunning. Within my first hour, I would wind up eating my boxed lunch with a member of the transitional government of Egypt, who moonlights as a grad student in Colorado; and within my first afternoon, I would hear talks about drought resistance in rice, marker-assisted breeding in sweet cherry and transgressive segregation in cotton, not to mention the 12 concurrent sessions on topics from citrus genomes to swine breeding. As a plant developmental biologist interested in international agriculture, I chose talks with an eye towards the border between basic and applied research, the brackish zone where molecular biological innovations find their way into research centers, field trials, and ultimately, farmers’ fields. In this report, I will present examples of the diverse and exciting work being done at this intersection, and will conclude by highlighting some emerging trends and challenges on the horizon. HubMed – eating